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107 terms

Environmental Science Exam II

STUDY
PLAY
Individuals within a population each have a unique combination of traits due to:
Genetic Variation
Symbiosis is the result of coevolution. Coevolution is the result of the interdependent evolution of:
two interacting species
Which of the following is an area where primary succession is likely to occur?
A sand dune along a lakeshore
Which of the following organisms would be members of a pioneer community on bare rock?
lichens
Secondary succession:
occurs in areas lacking vegetation where soil is present
Keystone species:
are usually not the most abundant species in the ecosystem
An organism's role, or lifestyle, within the structure of an ecosystem is its:
ecological niche
An ecological description of a species typically includes:
whether it is a producer, consumer, or decomposer, predator and/or prey, the kinds of symbiotic associations it forms, what species it competes with
Which of the following characterizes a symbiotic relationship?
a close interrelationship where both species benefit, a close inter- relationship where one species benefits and the other is not affected, a close interrelationship where one species benefits and the other is adversely affected, an intimate relationship between members of two or more species
Mycorrhizae help plants:
to absorb essential nutrient minerals
Predation can be defined as:
one organism consuming another organism, which may be a plant or animal
Competition occurs when:
two or more species attempt to use an essential common resource
All of the following are examples of mutualism except:
trees and epiphytes
The relationship between a tick and a dog is an example of:
parasitism
Which of the following statements is true?
Predation exerts a selective force on the prey, favoring characteristics that reduce the probability of capture.
Which of the following is not an adaptation to improve the efficiency of prey capture?
warning coloration
The shape of the bill on the bird in the figure below is most likely the result of:
coevolution & natural selection
The realized niche for the green anole differs from its fundamental niche because of:
competition
Which of the following terms encompasses all of the other terms?
coevolution
The associated figure provides support for which of the following processes?
competitive exclusion
Resource partitioning can be accomplished through all of the following except:
increasing niche overlap
Based on the figure below, as the structural complexity of the vegetation decreases, species richness
decreases
The number of species in a community can depend on:
the geological history of the region
the abundance of ecological niches
the stability of the ecosystem
the productivity of the ecosystem
The reason(s) that tropical regions of the world have such high biodiversity is:
because there are many ecological because they have a high productivity because they are geologically stable
Which of the following is an example of coevolution?
flowering plants and their pollinators
Which of the following is the best example of primary succession?
a forest develops on the edge of a retreating glacier
The potential ecological niche of an organism is its _______, while the niche an organism actually occupies is its ________.
fundamental niche; realized niche
Which term defines competition between species?
interspecific competition
Green anoles were forced out of their established habitat of trees, plants, walls and fences by invasive brown anoles. The green anoles then had to find new habitats in wetlands and tree crowns. This example illustrates the concepts of:
both competition and realized niche
Biogeochemical cycles:
describe the movement of water and other materials through abiotic and biotic interactions
Which of the following is not one of the biogeochemical cycles considered of particular importance for organisms?
hydrogen
In the carbon cycle, carbon can be found in:
the atmosphere
carbon dioxide and coal
limestone, animals, and plants
oil, bicarbonate, and sugar
The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living organisms to the atmosphere is called:
cellular respiration
Which of the following is not an example of a fossil fuel?
Wood
The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is important because nitrogen:
is an essential part of biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (DNA)
Nitrogen fixation is:
the conversion of gaseous nitrogen into an organism friendly form (ammonia (NH3)
Nitrogen gas accounts for what percentage of the atmosphere?
78%
Which of the following processes plays an important role in the phosphorus cycle?
erosion
Solar radiation:
is the product of a massive nuclear fusion reaction, essential for photosynthesis, captured by plants & may become energy available from fossil fuels, powers the hydrologic and other biochemical cycles
Which of the following surfaces has the highest albedo?
Glaciers
Stratospheric ozone is important because it:
absorbs UV radiation
The ocean conveyor belt affects:
regional & possibly global climate
The Coriolis effect is associated with:
the earth's rotation
Gyres are:
circular ocean currents
El Niño—Southern Oscillation events:
alter both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns
Which of the following does not influence climate?
topography, distance from the ocean, latitude, vegetation
Precipitation:
has a profound effect on the distribution of organisms
Which of the following has the most concentrated energy and highest destructive potential?
tornadoes
Rain shadow describes the;
dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing wind
Which of the following does not affect ocean currents?
marine organisms
The phosphorus cycle differs from the carbon cycle in that:
the atmosphere does not contribute to the phosphorus cycle
Which of the following processes is not involved in the hydrologic cycle?
fixation
El Niño and La Niña are similar in that both events:
affect weather patterns
The atmosphere consists of five concentric layers. What is the order of these layers starting at the Earth's surface?
troposhere, stratosphere,mesosphere, thermosphere,exosphere
Weather is a term that refers to the conditions in the atmosphere on a ________ basis, whereas climate is a description of ___________weather conditions.
hourly or daily; average, long-term
Wildfires:
are not always damaging for natural environments, can have an increased negative effect due to the efforts intended to prevent them, release nutrient minerals that are previously locked in dry organic material, are increasing do to climate change
Chaparral biomes occur:
in regions around the globe with mild, rainy winters, followed by hot, dry summers
Which of the following organizational hierarchies is correctly listed from smallest to largest unit?
1. population 2.community 3.ecosystem 4.biome
A relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by similar environmental factors regardless of where it occurs in the world is called a/an:
biome
Tundra:
has an extended day length during its growing season
The biome most suitable for the development of farmland is:
temperate grassland
The boreal forest is located ______ the tundra.
south of
The biome with high amounts of precipitation, large narrow-leaved evergreen trees, and epiphytes including lichens is the:
temperate rain forest
Hot summers and cold winters, topsoil rich in organic material, annual precipitation of 75 to 125 cm (30-50 in), and many hardwood trees are characteristics of the:
temperate deciduous forest
The tallgrass prairie is currently the rarest biome in North America due to:
conversion to agriculture
Which of the following biomes has the highest biodiversity?
tropical rain forest
Mixing of water layers, which often occurs in temperate lakes due to decreasing ambient temperature, is referred to as:
turnover
Free-floating aquatic organisms are known as:
plankton
A coastal body of water, partly surrounded by land, with input from both sea and fresh water is called:
estuary
Coral reefs:
protect coastlines from erosion, are the most diverse of all marine environments, are found in shallow, nutrient poor, tropical waters, may occur as barrier, fringing, or atoll formations
The thermocline is the layer in a lake at which:
the warm upper zone meets the cold lower zone
Deciduous forests:
have trees that shed their leaves seasonally
The biomes that commonly have fire-adapted species are:
chaparral, temperate grassland, and savanna
Which of the following abiotic factors does not typically affect biome structure?
salinity
The biomes known for supporting herds of grazing animals are:
temperate grassland and savanna
Which of the following does not apply to a biome?
usually confined to a relatively small geographical area
Which of the following is not important in determining the distribution of organisms in aquatic biomes?
water
Which of the following is not found at the boundary between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems?
oceanic province
Which of the following is not a source of human impact on the marine environment?
increased levels of O2
According to the diagram below, desert biomes would fall into the area marked by the letter:
E: Hot, Tropics. Right bottom corner.
Wetlands are important for all of the following reasons except:
they contribute to asymmetry in urban communities
Humans harm the oceans in all of the following ways except:
Recycling
What distinguishes the members of a particular species?
They look the same, they occupy the same niche, they freely breed and produce viable offspring, they can communicate w/ each other.
The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by
biogeography
Which of the following best represents superior evolutionary "fitness" for individuals in a population?
they produce the most viable offspring
The change in species composition that takes place after a forest fire is referred to as
secondary succession
The following relationships are: humans + mosquitoes
parasitic
Relationship: humans + pigeons
commensual
Relationship: humans + dogs
mutual
Natural selection should favor those individuals of each species that avoid or reduce competition.
True
What portion of the human's fundamental niche are we occupying today?
100%
8. When surface water temperature in the eastern Pacific Ocean becomes unusually cool, and westbound trade winds become unusually strong, it is called:
La Nina
1. Which of the following IS NOT one of the five main biogeochemical cycles of matter?
Iron
2. The carbon in fossil fuels, food and plants return to the atmosphere by
respiration, combustion, decomposition
3. Which of the following cycles does not involve an atmospheric phase of matter?
phosphorus
5. Which of the following surfaces has the lowest albedo?
asphalt
6. In which level of the atmosphere do we experience our weather?
troposphere
7. Which winds did Columbus and other explorers of tropical America use to cross the Atlantic?
Trade Winds
9. Which of the following is NOT caused by the Coriolis effect?
Tides
Which of the following are aquatic bottom-dwelling organisms?
benthos
7. Marine biomes are defined by all the following, except:
moisture
Which is the rarest untouched biome in the US?
tall grass praire
Temperate deciduous forests have been converted to agricultural use for how long?
millenia
The most biodiverse biome is:
tropical rain forest
The Arctic tundra receives less annual rainfall than some desert biomes.
True
A terrestrial biome is defined primarily by:
both temperature & moisture
Fire is a natural element of terrestrial ecosystems
Only true for some ecosystems