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Computers that reside in different geographic locations are connected using a(n) ________.

Wide area network (WAN)

Each device connected to a network is called a(n) ________.

Host or node

Throughput, the actual speed of data transfer that is achieved in a network, is usually ________.

Less than the data transfer rate

The ________ is the maximum speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network.


A(n) ________ allows sharing of a broadband Internet connection.


A(n) ________ keeps track of data packets and, in conjunction with network interface cards, helps the data packets find their destination without running into each other on an Ethernet network.


The "s" in https stands for ________.


In the URL, the portion labeled http is the ________.

Application layer protocol

In the URL, the portion labeled .com is the ________.

top level domain name

Which of the following is the distinguishing feature of local area networks?

Single geographic location

A(n) ________ is a set of rules that two communicating devices follow.


To provide seamless flow of data across networks that comprise an Internet, an elaborate scheme called a(n) ________ is used.

Layered protocol

Communications speeds are measured in ________.

bits or bps

The various computers and printers on a LAN are connected to a ________,which is a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits wired traffic on the LAN.


The protocols used on the Internet are arranged according to a structure known as the ________ protocol architecture.


Which of the following statements is true for the TCP/IP protocol architecture?

scheme of 5 protocol types arrange in layers; concerned with protocols for applications (ex. browsers, and Web servers), data communications across any network of networks (transport and internet), data transmission within a network (data link and physical)-TOP Layer: application, transport, internet, data link-BOTTOM Layer: physical

The application layer of the TCP/IP protocol architecture ________.

contains all protocols and methods that fall into the realm of process-to-process communications across an IP network

Which of the following protocols guarantees a secure transmission?

HTTPS, TLS/SSL, or ssh

The ________ layer of the TCP/IP protocol architecture is said to provide reliable internet transport.

Transport/ 4th layer

A ________ is a special-purpose computer that moves packet traffic according to the rules of the IP protocol.


Private IP addresses ________.

Identify a particular device on a private network usually on a LAN. Their assignment is controlled with the LAN. Example: coffee shop gives you a private IP address on the LAN device.

________ are programs that run on a server-tier computer and that manage HTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients.

Web servers

Which OSI layer is responsible for adding a header that includes routing information?

Network/ 3rd layer

Which OSI layer is considered the media access control layer?

Data layer (link)

Which OSI layer combines messages or segments into packets?

Transport layer

A network in which small chunks of data are passed through the network from node to node, and at each node the entire data chunk is received, stored briefly, and then transmitted to the next node, is a ________ network.

Packet switching

A dominant architecture in the business environment and the more recent Web-focused intranet trend is ________ computing.

Client/ server

In a ________ network, a dedicated communications path is established between two stations through the nodes of the network. The telephone network is the most common example.

Circuit switching

The ________ layer contains the logic needed to support the various user applications.


The key features of a protocol are: syntax, semantics and ________.


The ________ protocol architecture is a result of protocol research and development conducted on the experimental packet switched network ARPANET.


________ provides a basic electronic mail transport facility.


Electronic mail, remote logon, network management and Web access are examples of ________ applications.

server and client or elastic

A key parameter that characterizes any electromagnetic signal is ________, which is the width of the range of frequencies that comprises the signal.

either one of these: bandwidth, analog, digital, wavelength

In ________ transmission signals are transmitted in only one direction; one station is the transmitter and the other is the receiver.


Two stations can simultaneously send and receive data from each other with ________ transmission.


________ enables a receiver to regulate the flow of data from a sender so that the receiver's buffers do not overflow.

Flow control (provided by tcp)

In a data link control protocol, ________ control is achieved by retransmission of damaged frames.


The ________ time is the time it takes for a bit to traverse the link between source and destination.


Data are sent in blocks called ________.


The time it takes for a station to emit all of the bits of a frame onto the medium is the ________ time.

transmission time

The ________ multiplexing is the most heavily used. A familiar example is broadcast and cable television.

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)?

Circuit switching was developed to handle ________ traffic.


With ________ a dedicated path is established between two stations for communication.

end to end in Circuit switching network

The ________ element represents the functions and hardware needed to connect digital devices such as data processing devices and digital telephones to the network.

Network interface

In the ________ approach in packet switching each packet is treated independently with no reference to packets that have gone before.

Datagram network

The ________ function attempts to find the least cost route through the network.


________ has to do with the ability of the network to deliver packets via some route in the face of localized failures and overloads.


The simplest criterion in the selection of a route is to choose the ________.

shortest path or least cost path (same thing)

________ is determined by whether the routing decision is made on a packet or virtual circuit basis.

Decision time

With ________, routing decisions that are made change as conditions on the network change.

Adaptive routing

The principle conditions that influence routing decisions are ________.

failure and congestion

When the number of packets being transmitted through a network begins to approach the packet handling capacity of the network, ________ occurs.

Congestion or packet loss

The objective of congestion control is to maintain the number of packets within the network ________ the level at which performance falls off dramatically.


As packets arrive they are stored in the input buffer of the corresponding port, the node examines the packet, makes a routing decision, and then moves the packet to the appropriate ________.

output queue

For the routing function to work, an increased number of ________ must be exchanged between nodes to alert each other to areas of congestion.

ICMP Messages

The term ________ refers to the way in which the end points, or stations, attached to the network are interconnected.


A technique known as slotted ________ organizes time on the channel into uniform slots whose size equals the frame transmission time. Transmission is permitted to begin only at a slot boundary.


Two frames interfering with each other at the receiver so that neither gets through is known as ________.


With ________, a station wishing to transmit first listens to the medium to determine if another transmission is in progress. If the medium is in use, the station must wait. If the medium is idle, the station may transmit.


A ________ is a collection of interconnected access points with a software protocol structure that enables communication.

Carrier access station

IP attaches a header to upper layer data to form an IP ________.


The process in which a protocol may need to divide a block received from a higher layer into multiple blocks of some smaller bounded size is called ________.


A function performed by a receiving entity to limit the amount or rate of data that is sent by a transmitting entity is ________.

Multiplicative Decrease?

A device attached to one of the networks of an internet that is used to support end user applications or services is ________.

End system (ES)

The effect of the ________ is to erase the portion of the host field that refers to an actual host on a subnet, leaving the network number and the subnet number.

Subnet mask

Multiple users employing the same transport protocol and distinguished by port numbers or service access points is ________.

multiplexing in the context of a transport protocol ?

Which of the following is true of DSL modems?

1. DSL modem is the first modem type, stands for digital subscriber line. 2. Operate on the same lines as voice telephones, but they operate so that their signals do not interfere with voice telephone service. 3. DSL data transmission and telephone conversations can occur simultaneously. 4. Use their own protocols for data transmission. 5. DSL lines have different upload and download speeds (ADSL).

Connection establishment in TCP always uses a ________.

three way handshake

Multiple users employing the same transport protocol and distinguished by port numbers or service access points is ________.


A ________ is a collection of interconnected access points with a software protocol structure that enables communication.

Carrier access station

A key parameter that characterizes any electromagnetic signal is ________, which is the width of the range of frequencies that comprises the signal.


From the carrier's central office to the customer's site is ________.


From customer to carrier is ________.


Dynamic use of bandwidth is utilized with ________.

Datagram Packet switching and Virtual Circuit Switching

"________ is determined by whether the routing decision is made on a packet or virtual circuit basis.

set up

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