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New abnormal growth; benign or malignant tumors


excessive discharge of sebum - oily


inadequate discharge of sebum - dry


significant hair loss


excessive distribution of body hair, especially in womenc due to endocrine abnormalities

intertriginous areas

skin folds (ex. under breast)

Junctional nevi

macular only nevi, and occurs in children and adolescents

Compound nevi

macular and papular nevi in young adults


excessive or profuse sweating


an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot)

peau d'orange

"orange peel" appearance caused by edema suggests cancer


a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs. shiny skin, thin lips, muscle atrophy, no facial expressions

Cherry (senile) angioma

small, smooth, slightly raised bright red dots common on the trunk in adults over 30; increase in size and number with age

Fungal infection

Tinea - under Wood's light blue-green fluoresance

Clubbing nails

-occurs with congenital chronic cyanotic heart disease --Emphysema
-chronic bronchitis
-early clubbing: angle straightens out to 180º and nail base feels spongy to palpation

Mongolian spots

A bluish-black pigmented area on the newborn's buttocks or back. Seen in newborns with dark skin and typically fade over time. Can easily be confused for bruising. In Afro-Americans, American Indians, Hospanics, Asians

Cafe au lait spot

a large round or oval patch of light brown pigmentation (hence, the name "coffee with milk"), which is usually present at birth (6+ is abnormal)


a streak or a linear scar that often results from rapidly developing tension in the skin, such as seen on the abdomen after pregnancy.

Senile Lentigines

"liver spots". Small flat brown macules. Clusters of melanocytes that appear after extensive sun exposure. Appear on forearms and doras of the hands. Not malignant


skin tags, overgrowths of normal skin that form a stalk, are polyp-like, occur frequently occur on eyelids, cheeks, neck, axillae and trunk.

Venous stasis

decreased blood flow from area, engorged venules


elevated, localized collection of blood trapped under the skin that usually results from trauma. Bruise you can feel


benign proliferation of blood vessels in the dermis

Port Wine stains

patch along nerve V, birth mark, bright red, abnormally dense blood vessels, in dermis, face/neck, darken with age, early in fetal development

Strawberry Mark (Immature hemangioma)

raised bright red, 2-3 cm diameter, no blanch with pressure, consists of immature capillaries, present at birth or develops in 1st few months, disappears by age 5-7 yrs, no treatment

Cavernosus Hemangioma (mature)

reddish blue irrgelary shaped present at birth, may enlarge during 10-15 months and will not involute spontaneously


vascular dialation: permanently enlarged and dilated blood vessels that are visible

Star (spider) angioma

capillary radiations extend from central arterial body on face, neck, or chest

Venous lake

a blue-purple dilation of venules and capillaries in a star-shaped, linear or flaring pattern. pressure caused them to empty or disappear. located on legs near varicose veins and also on teh face, lips, ears and chest

purpuric lesions

purpura; lesions as a result of hemorrhages into the skin due to breaks in vessels


Pinpoint lesions, not from trauma, does not blanch, round and discrete 1to3 mm due to bleeding from superficial capillaries. May indiate abnormal clottng factors


red-purple patch due to extravasion of blood into skin >3mm


Confluent and extensive patch of patechiae and ecchymoses


candidiasis infection resulting in red, moist patches usually in genital area, aggravated by urine, feces, heat and moisture


Bacterial skin infection characterized by thin vesicles with erythematous base that become crusted and rupture

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

a chronic skin inflammation characterized by the appearance of inflamed, swollen papules and vesicles that crust and scale, with severe itching and burning; most outbreaks begin in infancy and are marked by exacerbations and remissions that usually clear up before adulthood; occurs in persons with atopy (a genetic hypersensitivity to environmental irritants of allergens)

Measles (rubeola)

Transmission is direct or indirect with airborne droplets. Maculopapular rash with Koplik's spots (small irregular red spots w/bluish-white center appearing on the muccal mucosa).

German Measles (rubella)

pink papular rash begins on the face, then spreads over the body; accompanied by swollen glands - lymphodenopathy; occurs mostly in children

Chicken Pox (Varicella)

contagious virus with red itchy vesicles that erupt -> pustule and become encrusted centrally. Ertthematous base

Primary Contact Dermatitis

local inflammatory reaction to an irritant or an allergy; erythema first, swelling, urticaria, maculopapular vesicles, scales w/pruritis. ex: poison ivy

Tinea Corporis

a contagious fungal infection that forms a ringed, red pattern with elevated edges and clear centers. Also called ringworm.

Tinea Pedis

athlete's foot (ringworm of the foot), which is caused by a fungus. Chrinically moist and warm feet.

Labial Herpes Simplex

herpes simplex virs (HSV I) infectoin has a prodrome of skin tingling and sensitivity. lesion then erupts with tight vesicles followed by pustules and then produces acute gingivostomatitis with many shallow,painful ulcers. common location is upper lip, also in oral mucosa and tongue

Tinea Versicolor

Superficial fungus infection of the skin
pink, tan, or white scaly macules on the trunk, neck, and upper arms

Herpes Zoster (shingles)

an acute viral infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox characterized by painful, vesicular lesions or eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves. Doesn't cross midline


chronic skin disease characterized by itchy, erythematous, silvery-scaled patches. Scalp, elboes, knees, low back, anogenital.

Basal cell carcinoma

a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis; this is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer because it is slow growing and rarely spreads to other parts of the body. w/telangiectasia and pearly border and red ulcer. On sun exposed areas of face, ears, scalp, shoulders

Squamous cell carsinoma

start as scaly, redden lesions on the head, scalp, and lip. Develops in ulcer surrounded by erythema. Can grow rapidly and spread if not removed. surgical or radiation = removal.

Tinea Capitis

scalp ringworm , patchy hair loss on scalp - broken off hairs, pustules, and scales. shines blue-green under Wood's light= fungus

Traumatic Alopecia

Linear or oval patch of hair loss along hair line, a part, or scattered distribution; caused by trauma from hair rollers, tight braiding, tight ponytail, barrettes.

Toxic alopecia

Patchy, asymmetric balding that accompanies severe illness or use of chemotherapy where growing hairs are lost and resting hairs are spared. Regrowth occurs after illness or dis-continuation of toxin.

Alopecia Areata

the sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots may occur on the scalp or elsewhere on the body /unknown couse

Pediculosis Capitis (head lice)

infestation with lice that causes itching and dermatitis especially on occipit


A contagious disease caused by a parasite (mite) that invades the skin, causing an intense itch - most often found at articulation between the fingers or toes, hands and wrists


fungal inflammation of the tissues around the nail; pus, thickening, and brownish discoloration of the nail plate

Beau's Line

trauma or illness affecting the nail formation; linear depression develops at the base and moves distally as the nail grows

Splinter Hemorrhages

Red-brown linear streaks, embolic lesions, occur with subacute bacterial endocarditis; also may occur with minor trauma.


fungal infection, change in color, loosening of the nail without shedding, usually beginning at the free edge and continuing to the lunula


Sharply defined pitting and crumbling of the nails with distal detachment often occurs with psoriasis.

Habit-Tic Dystrophy

Depression down middle of nail or multiple horizontal ridges, caused by continuous picking of cuticle by another finger of same hand, which causes injury to nail base and nail matrix.


condition in which one feels that one's surroundings are turning about, spinning


difficulty in swallowing

Paget's disease of Bone (Osteitis Deformance)

a skeletal bone disorder in which there is excessive bone resorption followed by replacement of normal marrow by vascular, fibrous connective tissue and new bone that is larger, disorganized, and weaker; characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone repair.

Torticollis / wryneck

hematoma in sternomastoid muscle causing stiffness and twisting of the neck that may be congenial or acquired - causes assymetry and limited ROM - visual problems, needs to be treated

Pilar Cyst (Wen)

smooth, firm, fluctuant swelling on the scalp that contains sebum and keratin. Tense pressure of the contents causes overlying skin to be shiny and taut. It is a benign growth.

Parotid gland enlargement

Rapid painful inflammation occurs with mumps. also occurs with blockage of a duct, abscess, or tumor. Note swelling anterior to lower ear lobe. Stensen duct obstruction can occur in aging adults dehydrated from diuretics or anticholinergics.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions: narrow palpebral fissures, midfacial hypoplasia

Congenital Hypothyrodism

by 3-6 months, low hairline, swollen eyelids, depressed nasal bridge. A and P fontanels are wide open.

Parkinson syndrome

a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis, condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine ( a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor; rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occurring later in life. No facial expressions

Cushing syndrome

collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland (often caused by a tumor), or more commonly as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid) hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or other inflammatory diseases; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness (moon-shaped appearance), hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension, and osteoporosis


Grave's disease (more common) w/goiter and exopthalmos (bulging eyes), tachycardia, nevousness, insomnia, weightloss, exopthalmos (grave's only), heat intolerance
thyrotoxic crisis (thyroid storm) - extremely high thyroid hormone

Hypothyrodism / Myxedema

This is when the face is puffy and have a thick tongue. Dry skin and hair

Bell's Palsy

Facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of CN 7 (facial nerve) and any or all or its branches. It may be unilateral, bilateral, transient, or permanent.

Cachectic appearance

Accompanies chronic wasting diseases such as cancer, dehydration, and starvation. Features include sunken eyes; hollow cheeks; and exhausted, defeated expression.

Pendlous breasts

arge breasts

nulliparous woman

female who has borne no offspring


thin, yellow fluid, precursor of milk, secreted for a few days after birth w/protein and lactose and NO fat


pain in breast


clear nipple discharge

Supernumerary nipple

extra nipple along the the embryonic "milk line" on the thorax or abdomen; a congenital finding


shallow, also called a skin tether, sign of skin retraction, cancer causes fibrosis, which contracts suspensory ligaments; apparent at rest, with compression, or with lifting of arms, note distortion of areola as fibrosis pulls nipple toward it , nipple is fixed

Fixation of breast

asymmetry distortion or decreased mobility with the elevated arm maneuver. As cancer becomes invasive the fibrosis fixes the breast to the underlying pectoral muscle.

Deviation in nipple pointing

underlying cancer causes fibrosis in mammary ducts which pulls nipple toward it
- this is different from someone who has always had inverted nipples

Benign Breast Disease (Fibrocystic Breast disease)

multiple tender masses. categorized based on six symptoms: swelling/tenderness, mastalgia (not always), nodularity (not always), dominant lumps, nipple discharge, and infections/inflammations. 50% of women. Bilaterally, mobile. 30-55

Breast cancer

This is/are: small, hard, fixed painless lump, change in size or shape of breast or nipple. RUQ most common. Discharge, dimpling, pulling or retraction of the skin of the breast resembling an orange peel. Lymphodenopathy. Diagnosed by BSE, mammography, biopsy. 30-80, most >50


This is a freely movable, rounded mass with well-defined borders and a solid rubbery texture. Nontender and most common in women in their teens & early twenties. Not associated with breast cancer.

Mammary duct Ectasia

Usually 50-70 YO females with previous children. It is an inflammation of the lactiferous ducts behind the nipple; cellular debris and fluid collect in the involved duct, enlarged and from a palpable, painful mass; thick, sticky green/ brown discharge from the nipple is common, Calcification and granulomas, can be painful but not associated with cancer

Intraductal Papilloma

Small, benign, wart-like tumor in major ducts usually within 1-2 cm. of areolar edge; one or more ducts may be affected. Most commonly occurs in women 40 to 60 yrs. Clinical Findings: Is spontaneous bloody discharge from nipple; occasionally a mass is palpated. unilateral

Carcinoma of breast

Bloody nipple discharge tha is unilateral

Paget's disease (Intraductal carcinoma)

Early lesion has unilateral, clear, yellow d/c and dry scaling crusts, friable at nipple apex. Speads outward to areola with erythematous halo on aerola and crusted, eczematous, retracted nipple. Later lesion shows nipple reddedned, excoriated, ulcerated, with blood d/c when surface is eroded, and an erythematous plaque surrounding the nipple. symptoms include tingling, burning, itching.

Plugged duct

One section of the breast is tender and possible red one milk duct is clogged.(but no infection). Important to keep breasts empty, but usually resolves in one day


inflammation of the breast usually occurs during breast feeding and is detected by redness, heat, and tenderness or pain, this is a type of cellulitis or localized soft tissue infection which requires antibiotics for recovery.

Breast Abscess

Untreated complication of generalized infection, pocket of pus accumulates. Must temporarily discontinue nursing-manually express milk and discard. Treated with antibiotics, surgical incision, and drainage


development of mammary glands in the male, caused by altered hormone levels. Normal in newborns, adolescent, older people

Male Breast Cancer

detected by clinical symptoms. painless palpable mass, hard, irregular, fixed in area, may have retraction and discharge.1%. Early spread to axillary nodes


difficulty swallowing


a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus)


vomiting of blood which will come from the gastrointestinal tract.


an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay


engaging in behaviors such as vomiting or misusing laxatives to get rid the body of food


Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract audible from distance


Uniformly rounded. Umbilicus sunken. Normal BS. Tympany.

Air or gas in abdomen

Single round curve. Decreased BS. Tympany. May be muscle spasm of abdominal wall

Ascites of abdomen

Single curve. everted umbilicus. Recent waight gain. Normal BS, tympany on top but no BS and dullness ove fluid. Increased abdominal P

Ovarian Cyst

Curve on lower abdomen. Everted umbilicus. Normal BS over upper abdomen. Dullness over fluid. Aortic pulsation.

Feces in abdomen

localized distention with dullness. Normal BS. Tympany.

Tumor of abdomen

localized distention. Normal BS. Dull over mass. Dfine borders.


inflammation of the gall bladder

Umbilical hernia

Soft, skin-covered mass which is the protrusion of the omentum or intestine through a weakness or incomplete closure in the umbilical area in prmature infants

Epigastric hernia

location - epigastrium, anterior abdominal wall (btwn sternum and umbilicus) poking - fatty tissue ,pierced - through linea alba

Incisional Hernia

A bulge near an old operative scar that may not show when person is supine but is apparent when the person increases intra-abdominal pressure by a sit-up, by standing, or by the Valsalva maneuver.

Diastasis Recti

midline longitudinal ridge, separation of abdominal rectus muscles, ridge is revealed when intra-abdominal pressure is increased by raising head while supine, occurs congenitally and as a result of pregnancy or marked obesity in which prolonged distention or a decrease in muscle tone has occurred, not clinically significant.

Succussion splash

a very loud splash auscultated over the upper abdomen when the infant is rocked side to side. Indicates increased air and fluid in the stomach, as seen with pyloric obstruction or large hiatus hernia.

Enlarged liver

Enlarged, smooth and nontender liver occurs with fatty infiltration, portal obstruction or cirrhosis, high obstruction of inferior vena cava and lymphocytic leukemia. Liver feels enlarged and smooth but is tender to palpation with early heart failure, acute hepatits, or hepatic absess

Enlarged Nodular liver

occurs w/ late portal cirrhosis, metastatic caner, or tertiary syphilis

Enlarged Gallbladder

Suggests acute cholecystitis, felt behind the liver border as a smooth firm mass like a sausage although it may be difficult to palpate because of involuntary rigidity of abdominal muscles. If nontender, gallbladder is filled with stones or common bilr duct obstruction

Enlarged Spleen

Enlarges down and to the midline. When splenomegaly occurs, it is moderately enlarged and soft with rounded edges. If chronic, the enlargement is firm or hard. Since acute/chronic don't usually reach peritoneum, no tenderness unless pertoneum is inflamed.

Enlarged Kidney

Caused by hydronephrosis, cysts, or neoplasm. May be difficult to distinguish an enlarged kidney from an enlarged spleen because they have a similar shape. Both extend forward and down. Kidney will never have sharp edge, or palpable notch. Percussion is tympanic because of overriding bowel

Aortic Aneurysm

Located below the renal arteries and extend to the umbilicus. 80% are palpable during routine physical exam and feel like a pulsating mass in the upper abdomen just to the left of midline. Bruits are heard, but femoral pulses are weakened.


excessive urination


decreased urine production <400mL/24hr


urination at night; can be a symptom of renal disease or may occur in persons who drink excessive amounts of fluids before bedtime.


painful or difficult urination.


involuntary delay in initiating urination

Urge Incontinence

Urine is lost in response to a sudden, urgent need to void; the person cannot get to a toilet in time

Stress incontinence

inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing

Nocturnal enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine at night; bed-wetting after 5-6 yo

Urethritis (male)

Urethral discharge and dysuria. Meatus edges are reddened, everted. 50% caused by chlamidia infection.

Renal Calculi

kidney stones, bedrest immobility, poor fluid intake, severe cramping& pain just below ribs, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, blood in urine, person needs 2000-3000ml of fluid/day - urinary system disorders

Acute urinary retention

abrupt inability to pass urine w/bladder distention and lower abdominal pain. must catheterize to relieve acute discomfort

Urethral Stricture

pinpoint constricted opening a meatus or inside along urethra. occurs congentially or secondary to urethral injury. gradual decrease in force and caliber of urine stream is most common symptom. shaft feels indurated along ventral aspect at the site of stricture

Tinea Cruris

a fungal infection in the crural fold, not extending to scrotum, occurring in postpubertal males (jock itch) after sweating or wearing layers of occlusive clothing. it forms a red-brown half moon shape w/well defined borders

Genital herpes

inflammatory std caused by the herpes simplex virus; symptoms include vesicles with surrounding erythema. and ruptire to ulcerative lesions on the genitals 7-10 days, then dormant indefinitely

HPV Genital Warts

Soft pointed moist warty papules. In a cauliflower-like patch.

Syphilitic Chancre

O: HSV 2, Begins as a small, solitary silvery papule that erodes to a red, round or oval superficial ulcer with a yellowish serous discharge. Palpation- nontender indurated base; can be liften like a button between thumb and finger. Nontender inguinal lymphadenopathy.


narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so it cannot be retracted or pulled back to expose the glans penis


foreskin is retracted and fixed,, cannot return to its original position. constriction impedes circulation so glands swells- compromise arterial circulation-medical emergency!


congenital deformity of the urethra in which the urethral opening is on the underside of the penis rather than at the end (ventral)


a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris


an abnormally persistent erection of the penis, often accompanied by pain and tenderness; usually caused by drug overdose

Peyronie disease

disorder characterized by a buildup of hardened fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum, causing pain and a defective curvature of the penis, especially during erection

Pediculosis Pubis

lice that generally infect the pubic region and sometimes also hair of the axilla, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, or other hairy body surfaces; also called crabs. Little dark spots, nits (eggs) at the roots

Red Rash/ contact dermatitis

Red, swollen vesicles -> crust, scales, excoriation. May result from feminine hygiene spray or synthetic underclothing.

Abscess of Bartholin's gland

local pain, can be severe. overlying skin red and hot. posterior part of labia swollen, palpable fluctant mass and tenderness.

Urethral Caruncle

S: Tender painful with urination, urinary frequency, hematura, dyspareunia, and asymptomatic.
O" small, deep red mass protruding from meatus; usually secondary to urethritis or skenitis; may bleed on contact.


hernia in which the urinary bladder protrudes through the wall of the vagina

Uterine prolapse

the condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina


hernia of part of the rectum into the vagina

Atropic Vaginitis

postmenopausal thinning and dryness of the vaginal epithelium w/possible blood d/c related to decreased estrogen levels - opportunistic infection

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