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Anaerobic Gram-positive Bacilli - Genus Actinomyces
Terms in this set (13)
Actinomyces,( Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium mixed culture opportunistic infection low virulence)(Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium)
-cause chronic granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesions
-In cattle, A. bovis causes actinomycosis and is characterized by proliferative osteomyelitis of the mandible and/or maxilla and chronic granulomatous lesions in soft tissues of head and neck.
-In dogs, A. hordeovulneris infections are associated with foreign bodies, especially grass awns implanted into soft tissues.
-In humans, A. israelii causes actinomycosis.
-In dogs, A. viscosus causes pulmonary actinomycosis
cause chronic granulomatous or pyogranulomatous tissue reactions.
Pathogenic Actinomyces Species
-A. bovis causes bovine actinomycosis and equine fistulous withers. ( obligate anaerobe)
-A. hordeovulneris causes canine opportunistic infections( mircoaerophilic)
-A. israelii causes human actinomycosis(obligate anaerobe)
-A. viscosus causes canine pulmonary actinomycosis.(mircoaerophilic)
Habitat and Ecology
occur as commensals on mucous membranes of the genital
tract and oral and nasal cavities.
Soil is the natural habitat of many Actinomyces species
Actinomyces species are gram-positive pleomorphic bacilli.
Some Actinomyces species exhibit branching in vivo, but they seldom exhibit branching in vitro.
-A. bovis and A. israelii are obligate anaerobes and can be cultured on brain heart infusion blood agar under anaerobic conditions at 37C
-For optimal growth of most Actinomyces species, carbon dioxide concentrations from 3-8% required
- A. hordeovulneris and A. viscosus are microaerophilic and can be cultured on blood agar under microaerophilic conditions at 37C.
Actinomyces species are saccharolytic with a fermentative metabolism.
Canine A. hordeovulneris infection
-infections are generally initiated when grass awns (fomites) are implanted into tissues
producing chronic pyogranulomatous lesions
-A. viscosus is the primary agent of pulmonary actinomycosis (empyema and pleuritis) and can be isolated in pure or mixed culture with facultative anaerobes and/or obligate anaerobes. Pulmonary actinomycosis is often indistinguishable from pulmonary nocardiosis, which is caused by Nocardia asteroides(kinyoun stained)
A. bovis, and Brucella abortus(more frequent) causes fistulous withers with chronic draining lesions. In fistulous withers, bursa between the nuchal ligament and vertebral dorsal spines are affected.
-bursitis with chronic draining exudate
Bovine and Human Actinomycosis
Bovine - A. bovis & Human- A. israelii. Host adapted pathogens, anaerobic g+ bacilli.
Both oral flora, non invasion pathogens.
need abrasion of mucous membranes.
Bovine has both chronic proliferative osteomyelitis and granulomatous lesions and humans only have granulomatous lesions
-granulomatous lesions- called sulfur granules bc yellow-white color.
Pathology - proliferative osteomyelitis mandible and maxilla, bacterial granules gram stained and histopathology soft tissue brown- breem gram stain are all pathognomonic (characterisitics of BA) Brain heart blood agar 10% CO2 10%H & 80% N. Soft Tissue infection
Chacterisics - chronic infection and bacterial granules of A. israelii and gram stained granules are pathognomonic. Soft tissue infection
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