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Colonial Plans and Planning

Grid patterns, smaller houses, usually closer together, included outer ring of natural and garden areas, public centers and squares in the center of the city

L'Enfant and the Plan for Washington

Diagonal avenues that cut across city, room for green space, grand avenue that became the mall, included public parks and grand monuments

Spanish Laws of the Indies

Major planning rules, required settlements to be of one building type, defendable, large open areas, good wind flow and resources nearby, looked to make cities that would be well liked and would last

Radburn, NJ

part of the Garden City Movement- has large blocks of green space with pedestrian access, emphasis on separation of traffic and pedestrians, houses are not street oriented. Showed that planning at the local level was an effective way of planning.

Reform Era

The health of people and ecosystem became important; giving people humane living conditions, cleaning up cities, brining natural setting back so all classes could enjoy escape

Dumb-bell tenements

New design for tenement buildings that was shaped like dumb-bells, allowed more windows and light into rooms, considered a large improvement for poor living conditions

Central Park, NYC

Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvin Vaux's plan to landscape

Daniel Burnham

designed the slender 285-foot tower in 1902, the Flatiron Building

City Beautiful Movement

Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world.

Ebenezer Howard and Garden Cities

Howard wrote Garden Cities of Tomorrow describing a community that lived in harmony with nature and was the inspiration for the Garden City Movement- a method of planning where cities were surrounded by greenbelts and there were proportionate areas of residency, industry, and agriculture, the area was laid out in a circle.


In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.

Greenbelt, MD

Town built during the new deal era, based on green principles, older feel, walking and public space are important, self contained city where car is not "needed", founded as a public cooperative community

Clarence Perry and the Neighborhood Concept

Have close-knit neighborhood, no through-streets, allows street areas to play, each neighborhood has a school within walking distance for children, multiple neighborhoods make up a city


dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc

Euclid v. Amber Realty

acts of the Case
The Ambler Realty Company owned 68 acres of land in the village of Euclid, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland. On November 13, 1922, the village council passed a zoning ordinance dividing the village into several districts. The ordinance defined the use and size of buildings permissible in each district. Ambler Realty's land spanned multiple districts, and the company was therefore significantly restricted in the types of buildings it could construct on the land. Ambler Realty filed suit against the village, claiming the ordinance violated the Fourteenth Amendment's protections of liberty and property described in the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses. A federal district court agreed and issued an injunction against enforcement of the ordinance.

Did the village of Euclid's zoning ordinance violate Ambler Realty's rights to liberty and property under the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment?

No. In a 6-3 opinion authored by Justice George Sutherland, the Court concluded that the speculative damages claimed by Ambler Realty were insufficient to invalidate an otherwise valid exercise of the village's police power. Sutherland's opinion, after noting that several lower courts had upheld zoning laws, and that numerous investigations and studies had found the laws beneficial, stated that such facts "are sufficiently cogent to preclude us from saying...that such provisions are clearly arbitrary and unreasonable, having no substantial relation to the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare." Given the law's valid basis, the Court found that, although its enforcement may ultimately cause some degree of hardship to the company, it could not overturn the ordinance based solely on "the broad ground that the mere existence and threatened enforcement of the ordinance, by materially and adversely affecting values and curtailing the opportunities of the market, constitute a present and irreparable injury." (1925)

Euclidean Zoning

-most prevalent form of zoning in the US.
-prescriptive nature
-objective, easy and consistent interpretation
-long established legal precedent
-clear separation of land uses
-criticized for being inflexible and institutionalized also prescriptive nature lead to poor design and aesthetics

Urban Renewal

Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.


a major Housing and Urban Development (HUD) plan meant to revitalize public housing projects into mixed-income developments. Based on new urbanism and defensible space. Began 1992.

Historic Preservation

Acting to protect buildings, parks, monuments that have an historical significance, these areas often become public and tourist spaces which provide a city with character, helps keep the history of the city at the forefront, preserves build environment

Pruitt Igoe (St. Louis)

Low income housing development. Garnered much support and commendation for being wonderfully designed with big open hallways and emphasized use of stairways, crime became an issue in stairs and halls as they were hard to make safe, conditions became horrible, eventually was demolished and considered a failure

Federal Interstate Highway Act

Planned route of highways that would travel between major cities. Was expected to help people move quickly into cities and also increase their appeal. The opposite happened and people moved farther out of town and it became a catalyst for blossoming suburbs

Environmental Movement

Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.

Jane Jacobs

Wrote "The Death and Life of Great American Cities". Critiqued the government's planning principles of the 1950s. Helped support neighborhoods and close-knit pedestrian-friendly areas. Let grassroots movement to stall proposed projects for the auotmobile

Iam McHarg

1969 book Design with Nature pioneered the concept of ecological planning. It continues to be one of the most widely celebrated books on landscape architecture and land-use planning. In this book, he set forth the basic concepts that were to develop later in Geographic Information Systems.

Rachel Carson

one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.

William (Holly) Whyte

Used time lapse photography to analyze people in the urban envir. Helped show the effectiveness of public spaces, set sidewalk widths, issues with jaywalking, how people react to interactive envir., etc. Contradicts the automobile and pedestrian separation

Smart Growth

legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland

Shrinking Cities

Cities that are losing population to suburbs and sprawl. Causes industry to move closer to people which compounds the problem. Creates a decaying city with infrastructure that is not used, puts financial strain on city to maintain w/o the taxes. Happening faster than growth

Mortgage Interest Deduction

Allows people with mortgages to reduce their taxes paid by the interest paid on their housing loan. Helps give incentive to own a home, allows taxes to be less. Arguments about its viability about including it down's increase ownership rates

American Planning Association (APA)

a professional organization that represents the field of planning and its main function is to serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas between people who work in the field of planning

Visual Preference Surveys (VPS)

Seeing what people might like to see in designs of city projects

Ecological Footprint

A way of measuring how much of an impact a person or community has on the earth. Someone who uses more natural resources will have a bigger footprint than someone who uses less.

EcoDensity (Vancouver)

The EcoDensity Charter commits the City to make environmental sustainability a primary goal in all city planning decisions - in ways that also support housing affordability and livability - and the Initial Actions provide the 'roadmap' to begin implementation of the EcoDensity Charter

World Summit on Sustainable Development

In Johannesburg during 2002, the __________________________ brought together tens of thousands of participants, including heads of state and government, national delegates and leaders from NGOs, businesses, and other major groups to focus global attention and direct action toward meeting difficult development challenges, including improving people's lives and conserving our natural resources in a world that is growing in population, with ever-increasing demands for food, water, shelter, sanitation, energy, health services, and economic security.

Sustainability; Sustainable Development

Using natural resources without running out of them, and providing for human needs without causing long term environmental harm.

Via Verde (Bronx, NYC)

LEED certified subsidized apartment complex designed for low-income residents. Has a built in medical clinic to promote the community's health and has communal garden plots on the roof of the complex for use by its residents to promote local food movement. Its design encourages people to mix private and public living by making time spent outside more enjoyable.

Community Land Trusts

A non-profit or charitable organization created to own real estate (land and buildings) on behalf of the community in order to meet the long-term affordable housing and community development needs of low- to moderate-income households


who: Swiss foreigners hired by chinese politicians
what: attempting to make china more environmentally friendly
why: they want to change image as polluters
problems: were not targeting the cause of pollution, instead targeted innocent peasants who played no role in pollution in the first place.
Eco villages forced peasants to become ecological citizens
forcing people to adopt monetary society standards (pay for bills, use money, 9-5 jobs etc)
Centralization: relocation of these people
Two problems: Zao wasn't the problem, the wasteland was not really a wasteland, incorporate farmers into new monetary economy, however, it doesn't work and their turned into wage laborers

Cleveland Ecovillage

took an existing neighborhood in Cleveland and restored/ redeveloped it.

Christie Walk (Adelaide, Australia)

Christie Walk is a medium density co-housing development located in downtown Adelaide which combines many ecologically sustainable and community enhancing features

Granny Pods

Accessory housing units for elderly family members- created as a response to an aging population and affordable housing issues

Care Cottages

accessory unit that is brought in and attached to a home

Aging in Place

Remaining in the same home and community in later life, adjusting but not leaving when health fades.

Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORCs)



Group living where there are private homes plus common facilities., clusters of houses having shared dining halls and other spaces, encouraging stronger social ties while reducing the material and energy needs of the community.

Bakken, Denmark

Example of cohousing

Trudeslund, Denmark

Example of cohousing

Central Living


Accessory/ Secondary Housing Units

independent, complete living units created from surplus space, or added in inconspicuous ways, within single family homes or detached structures

New Urbanism

Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.

Kentlands, MD

new urbanism design, tries to make houses closer together and revive style of 1900's/1920's, make more walkable, etc.

Civano (Tucson, Arizona)

sustainable community which has green elements and mixed-use development

Seaside, FL

1984 construction begins. One of the earliest examples of New Urbanism (Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk). Unlike most early planned communities, New Urbanism emphasizes urban features: compactness, walkability, mixed use
- Promotes a nostalgic architectural style reminiscent of the traditional urban neighborhood. - - The movement has its links to anti-sprawl, smart growth movements

Celebration, FL

Represents the saturation of the Superbrand: 360 degree brand living, Live everyday of your life in the New Brand
Power comes from the top-down instead of representatives

Troy Gardens (Madison, WI)


Community Land Trust

It is a private nonprofit organization that sells homes homes but leases the land it is on. Makes home ownership more affordable. One gets back what they put in. It keeps prices low by insulating property from speculation.

Baldwin Park (Orlando)

Neighborhood developed to be livable, walkable, and 3 miles from downtown Orlando. Built on a former site (Naval Trainign Center) that is home to 8000 residents and 135 businesses.

Nyland, CO

example of cohousing

Solara (San Diego)

Sustainable housing, Nonprofit housing producer makes units- first affordable housing project fully powered by the sun

Solaire (NYC)

First "green" residential building in NYC with a level Gold LEED rating. Currently sits as a very expensive and affluent neighborhood of NYC since developers were only required to set aside 10% of the units as "affordable housing"

LA Ecovillage


The Crossings (Mountain View, CA)

An infill project from a shopping mall that is now replaced with homes, retail shops, and a daycare center- incorporates narrow streets and small pocket parks to create a walkable neighborhood. An example of a transit oriented development with it only being a 5 minute walk from any home to the stores/commuter rail station and 2 or less minute walk to a park.

Leiden, Netherlands

-Physical exercise is in everyday routine, bike to work, etc (vs. Americans have to make time)
-lots of 3rd places (not home or work); nature and h20 important
-interconnected and compact, can bike almost anywhere; at trainstation you see almost entirely bikes, very few cars
-see handout
-pedestrian, lots of places for kids to play; lots of spaces promoting social interaction

Cottage housing/Pocket Neighborhoods

New Cottage- concept embodied in Washington State, layering public and private buildings, shared gardens, creative ways to ensure privacy, nested housing where one entrance faces the closure of the next house

Promotes the idea of individuality and livign large in a small house- simple materials rich with details

The High Line (NYC)

Formerly elevated freight line in NYC that has turned into a walkway/park that serves as a successful and aesthetically pleasing public space with greenery and third-place areas to interact with people

Village Homes, CA

Sub division with east-west streets. Has natural drainage between homes which is so good that it is used by outside communities. All the trees in the neighborhood are produce trees (apple, pear, etc.) To pay for the workers, it has an almond grove. There aren't the typical facades of houses, as the main focus is toward the green space between houses.

Kronsberg (Hannover, Germany)

Urban planned community outside of Hannover. Utilizes central heating hub and passive solar heating to reduce energy consumption

South Village (Burlington, VT)

Traditional neighborhood development in Vermont. Incorporates a neighborhood within a community farm. Each home owner has the option to buy into the farm, receiving weekly produce

Portland, OR

Incorporates many of the ideals of the class. Limited the number of parking spaces in the city, implemented an urban growth boundary encouraging creative land use, intersection repair started here. Tram system is one of the best in America

Portland MAX

The light rail alternative transportation system

Urban Villages

areas of a city that people know well and in which they live, play, shop, and work

Subiaco Model Sustainable Home


Freiburg, Germany

Eco-minded town in Germany that has an extensive tram system that runs through the city. Many of its environmental initiatives can be found in Vauban


War engineer- fortified towns, trench warfare, defensive fronteirs

Freiburg Charter for Sustainable Urbanism


Planning for Climate Change (Adaption and Mitigation)



One of the most basic multi-use building designs. Empty space above shops is converted to residential space, often used by the owner of the commercial space

Green Skyscrapers

40% of the world's energy is consumed by buildings. Green skyscrapers aim to improve the energy efficiency of buildings throughout their lifetime. LEED accreditation has greatly helped increase the number of green ss

Susanka's "Not So Big House"


Urban Sprawl

The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.

Shrinking Cities

Refers to a global phenomenon whereby cities that lose their manufacturing also lose population. These cities must figure out what to do with the loss of population and subsequent land vacancy.

Mixed-Use Development

Single Planned Development designed for multiple use (residential, retail, industrial) to minimize travel to CBD

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB)

This is a regional boundary set to promote the development of high density, pre-established urban growth and to limit the density in areas outside of the boundary

Portland DOwntown/Center City Plans promote regional greenspaces, environmental resource planning, and exclusive farm use zones

Copenhagen regional "fingers" plan (1947)

Development of areas surrounding Copenhagen that are transit-oriented. Each of Copenhagen's five fingers corresponds to one of the main metro lines for the area, which helps bring nature closer to the city because it fills the area between the fingers

Compact Urban Form

Attempts to develop higher density areas and clear community edges. Reduces the reliance on automobiles and creates a space where residents do not have to go far to acquire basic needs

Infill Development

development of vacant or underused parcels within a developed urban area

Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)

intent of TDR is to concentrate development in areas where it is wanted (receiving areas) and restrict it in areas where it is not (sending areas).
ex. Times Square in the 70s
-gives subsides and tax breaks
-provide a monetary incentive
-give grants or low interest loans
-property owners in SA who do not develop their properties to the full extent permitted by law may 'sell' their unused rights to property owners in RA
-limited market for TDR since few owners have not developed to full extent
-fairness to property owners immediately outside RA
-administrative complexity


someone who objects to siting something in their own neighborhood but does not object to it being sited elsewhere

Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)

Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth

Vancouver's "Living First" policy

Early 1990s Vancouver's city council adopted a new Central Area Plan based on a "living first" strategy, rezoning eight million sqft from commercial to residential areas and turning over old railroads along the waterfront for housing. Pushes for housing intensity, insists on housing diversity, builds coherent, identifiable neighborhoods, and fosters regional architectural principles. Puts residential higher than commercial for importance

Historic Chicago Bungalow Initiative

Launched by Mayor Richard M Daley in Sept 2000. Was designed to foster an appreciation of the buildings as a distinctive housing type, encourage sympathetic rehabilitation of them, and assist owners with adapting their homes to current needs, which helps strengthen these neighborhoods

Dutch Hofjes

Originally set up as religious centers. U-shaped buildings with courtyards found in the center. Several apts are within the building. The common green space in the middle creates an area for apt owners to meet

Live-Work units

Multi-use development intended for shop or business owners that want to live above their work space

Little Free Library


Toy Libraries/Tool Libraries

Places that rent out tools/toys to the public. Supports the idea of borrowing instead of owning as a method to create sustainability. Community trust that items will be returned

Flexible Architecture/Design

Design concept kept in mind that things should be able to change and adapt to new circumstances in the future and that design should be flexible as their surroundings change. Plans ahead assuming there will be change

Adaptive Reuse

Using an older building for a purpose for which it was not originally intended. ex: Tate Modern art museum in London was originally a power plant

Gated Communities

Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.

Boulder, CO

Infrastructure development limits urban growth, uses the Danish plan (allocates permissible growth annually on a point system basis), Greenbelt-retention of a circle of natural land around the city gives people in the city access to nature and protects wildlife

Davis, CA

Extremely bike-friendly, extensive bike lanes, paths and separated crossings; site of village homes- single family homes oriented away from streets, streets oriented east-west for better solar orientation, community shared spaces, solar hot water heating, "eco-Radburn"

Conservation Communities

The object of community-based conservation is to incorporate improvement to the lives of local people while conserving areas through the creation of national parks or wildlife refuges. While there have been some notable successes, unfortunately community-based conservation has often been ineffective because of inadequate resources, uneven implementation, and overly-wishful planning.

Prairie Crossing, IL

Conservation Community. Developed around a prairie, community dedicated to the conservation and preservation of the prairie lands; working farm within the development; incorporates some energy conservation/efficiency practices

Charlottesville Downtown Mall

One of the finest urban parks of the country
Pedestrian style mall
Public area in VA utilizing area-wide traffic management (closing off full areas to motorized vehicles)


abandoned polluted industrial sites in central cities, many of which are today being cleaned and redeveloped


Abandoned buildings; previous "big-box" stores, shopping malls, warehouses, etc; potential for development- do not have to deal with contamination like for brownfields, more useful than developing previously undeveloped land


Sites that have not been previously developed or built on, and which could support open space, habitat or agriculture.

Urban Greenbelts

Retention of a band of natural land around the city; gives people in the city access to nature and protects wildlife
Ex: Boulder

Free Range Kids

Encouraging children to get outside and be independent; decreasing worrying about kidnapping, etc. Facilitated by certain communities

Yard Farms

(e.g. Community Roots in Boulder, CO) Planting crops in yards of homes; homeowner gets a portion of the crop, the rest goes to local farms; better utilization of lawn space; farmers come in and take care of crops, this just gives them valuable land

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)

A farm that has community members pay an annual or quarterly fee in exchange for a weekly share of produce or other farm products.

Survival gardens

Growing food at home because it saves money and is better for the environment in a number of ways

Urban Heat Island Effect

the heat that cities generate as a result of having many buildings and few trees or other vegetation

Third Places

Places other than home and work; site for social interaction; public spaces, e.g. coffee shops, community centers, etc

Circular Urban Metabolism

Everything being put into the city can be recycled/reused; reducing the waste created by cities; relying on supplies/resources from within city boundaries rather than outside

Inclusionary Zoning

zoning regulations that create incentives or requirements for affordable housing development

Density Bonuses

Incentives for building affordable housing units; when more affordable housing units are built, can build more "market-price" units than otherwise would have been allowed; exceeds density that would normally be allowed in the area

Green Urbanism

Incorporates green ideals into new urbanist design; much more dense than traditional new urbanism; alternative energy; links to transportation (new urbanism tends to be car dependent outside the neighborhood); ex: Civano, Eva-Lanxmeer

Growth Management

Key issues: protection of natural resources; substitution of sprawl with compact development; urban growth boundaries, infill, infrastructure-based development (can only sprawl as fast as infr does), high-density development, Vancouver's vertical plan


Implementing devices/practices to slow traffic. Roundabouts, speed humps, medians, "naked streets". Increase drivers' awareness of surroundings, force them to pay more attention

Location-efficient Mortgages

Allow people to buy more expensive homes than they would otherwise be able to afford by buying in an area where they won't have to rely on a car, incentivizing TOD. Has been used in places such as the DC area homes near Metro stations

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)

A measure of transportation demand that estimates the travel miles associated with a project, most often for single-passenger cars. LEED sometimes uses a complementary metric for alternative-mode miles (e.g., In high-occupancy autos).


Instead of owning a car, people have access to public vehicles for use when needed. Beneficial for people who generally use alternative modes of transit. Saves on expenses of owning a car

Personal Rapid Transit

Individual "pods" that hold about as many people as a car. Fixed routes and allow more direct routes than public transit because you decide the end location. ex: test system in Heathrow airport

Charlottesville Streetcar (proposed)


Street permeability

The extent to which urban forms permit/restrict movement of people or vehicles in different directions- Charlottesville downtown mall with their area-wide traffic management

auto insurance "by the slice"


high-speed rail

Extensive network in Europe, goes much faster than cars. Cheaper and more envir. friendly alternative to flying. Spain-Ave system proposed to have 90% of population w/in 30 minutes of a station

road pricing

Implementing some sort of charge on roads to incentivize driving less. ex: congestion charging (forces drivers to bear the cost of congestion, higher charge during peak hours), toll roads, HOT lanes

Central London Congestion Charge

Charges drivers a fee for entering the business district at certain times. Effort to decrease driving and congestion and encourage public transit. Has proven to be effective

Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)

Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth

Vehicle Miles Traveled

Total number of miles driven by all vehicles in a given area and time period. Can also be expressed as per capita, and has been skyrocketing

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

Form of public transportation that uses buses that provide a much faster and efficient service than a regular bus line. The greater speed and efficiency is generally accomplished by exclusive lanes, larger buses, subway-like stations, and computerized scheduling. BRTs are often compared to Light Rail Transit (LRTs) and there is debate as to which one is more economical (in the long run), efficient, and faster. These buses tend to sue diesel, but it is expected that they will eventually be hybrid vehicles.


circular intersections and traffic circles with a circular island in the center, one or more lanes

Intersection Repair

Painting an intersection with elaborate design that creates a community gathering space and encourages drivers to slow down giving them a signal they are entering a neighborhood

Naked Streets/Intersections

Traffic calming concept in which streets are stripped of all road lanes and signs to force people to pay attention while driving; mental speed bumps

Smart Bikes

(e.g. Barcelona's Bicing) Bike sharing program used for daily city routes. Users must acquire a yearly membership and bike stations are throughout the city, usually located next to public transport stops to allow for intermodal use

High Speed Rail

Extensive network in Europe, goes much faster than cars. Cheaper and more envir. friendly alternative to flying. Spain-Ave system proposed to have 90% of population w/in 30 minutes of a station

Electric Bikes

Bikes powered by electric motors that encourage the idea of bicycling as a mode of transportation for the elderly and for harsh climates or topography. Becoming more popular in the Netherlands

Urban Density

concentration of people in a city, measured by the total number of people per square mile

Urban Heat Island Effect

Phenomenon in which a metropolitan area is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to the large amount of land coverage by buildings and roads. Planting trees can help to serve as natural air conditioners

Walking School Bus

Where a group of students and parents take advantage of the close proximity to a school by walking in groups instead of driving to avoid car dependence

Out of Reach Study

Side-by-side comparison of wages and rents in every county, metropolitan area, combined nonmetro area and state in the US. From the calculations, the hourly wage a worker must earn to afford the fair market's rent for a two BR home is derived

100-Mile Diet

Book where authors recount their experiences restricting their diet for a year to only foods grown within 100 miles of their residence

Nature-Deficit Disorder

Trend that children are spending less time outside which can be attributed to increasing consumption of electronic media resulting in behavioural problems/ disorders

Monocan Indian Nation


Monte Alban (Oaxaca, Mexico)

Valley is surrounded by a ring of mtns.; peninsula that juts out= cite for the major city; decided location of city based on the geography; made a series of mtns on the edge w/ the flat area in the center; made their city to reflect the geography of the land; buildings look to nature; built their pyramids to emulate the mtns; land forms made into human emulation forms; nature drove the architectural forms

Interstate Highway System

A system of limited access roadways that connects all major cities in the US. The system was designed to give troops faster routes to get to destinations across the US in the event of an attack on the US. The system's main purpose now is travel by civilians.


In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.

Pioneer Courthouse Square

Public space occupying a city block in downtown Portland, converted from parking space. Example of green spaces in cities and reclaiming streets. Contributes to sense of place/community

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