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Urban Planning Midterm

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Colonial Plans and Planning
Grid patterns, smaller houses, usually closer together, included outer ring of natural and garden areas, public centers and squares in the center of the city
L'Enfant and the Plan for Washington
Diagonal avenues that cut across city, room for green space, grand avenue that became the mall, included public parks and grand monuments
Spanish Laws of the Indies
Major planning rules, required settlements to be of one building type, defendable, large open areas, good wind flow and resources nearby, looked to make cities that would be well liked and would last
Radburn, NJ
part of the Garden City Movement- has large blocks of green space with pedestrian access, emphasis on separation of traffic and pedestrians, houses are not street oriented. Showed that planning at the local level was an effective way of planning.
Reform Era
The health of people and ecosystem became important; giving people humane living conditions, cleaning up cities, brining natural setting back so all classes could enjoy escape
Dumb-bell tenements
New design for tenement buildings that was shaped like dumb-bells, allowed more windows and light into rooms, considered a large improvement for poor living conditions
Central Park, NYC
Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvin Vaux's plan to landscape
Daniel Burnham
designed the slender 285-foot tower in 1902, the Flatiron Building
City Beautiful Movement
Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world.
Ebenezer Howard and Garden Cities
Howard wrote Garden Cities of Tomorrow describing a community that lived in harmony with nature and was the inspiration for the Garden City Movement- a method of planning where cities were surrounded by greenbelts and there were proportionate areas of residency, industry, and agriculture, the area was laid out in a circle.
Levittown
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
Greenbelt, MD
Town built during the new deal era, based on green principles, older feel, walking and public space are important, self contained city where car is not "needed", founded as a public cooperative community
Clarence Perry and the Neighborhood Concept
Have close-knit neighborhood, no through-streets, allows street areas to play, each neighborhood has a school within walking distance for children, multiple neighborhoods make up a city
Zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
Euclid v. Amber Realty
acts of the Case
The Ambler Realty Company owned 68 acres of land in the village of Euclid, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland. On November 13, 1922, the village council passed a zoning ordinance dividing the village into several districts. The ordinance defined the use and size of buildings permissible in each district. Ambler Realty's land spanned multiple districts, and the company was therefore significantly restricted in the types of buildings it could construct on the land. Ambler Realty filed suit against the village, claiming the ordinance violated the Fourteenth Amendment's protections of liberty and property described in the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses. A federal district court agreed and issued an injunction against enforcement of the ordinance.

Question
Did the village of Euclid's zoning ordinance violate Ambler Realty's rights to liberty and property under the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment?

Conclusion
No. In a 6-3 opinion authored by Justice George Sutherland, the Court concluded that the speculative damages claimed by Ambler Realty were insufficient to invalidate an otherwise valid exercise of the village's police power. Sutherland's opinion, after noting that several lower courts had upheld zoning laws, and that numerous investigations and studies had found the laws beneficial, stated that such facts "are sufficiently cogent to preclude us from saying...that such provisions are clearly arbitrary and unreasonable, having no substantial relation to the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare." Given the law's valid basis, the Court found that, although its enforcement may ultimately cause some degree of hardship to the company, it could not overturn the ordinance based solely on "the broad ground that the mere existence and threatened enforcement of the ordinance, by materially and adversely affecting values and curtailing the opportunities of the market, constitute a present and irreparable injury." (1925)
Euclidean Zoning
-most prevalent form of zoning in the US.
-prescriptive nature
-objective, easy and consistent interpretation
-long established legal precedent
-clear separation of land uses
-criticized for being inflexible and institutionalized also prescriptive nature lead to poor design and aesthetics
Urban Renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
HOPE VI
a major Housing and Urban Development (HUD) plan meant to revitalize public housing projects into mixed-income developments. Based on new urbanism and defensible space. Began 1992.
Historic Preservation
Acting to protect buildings, parks, monuments that have an historical significance, these areas often become public and tourist spaces which provide a city with character, helps keep the history of the city at the forefront, preserves build environment
Pruitt Igoe (St. Louis)
Low income housing development. Garnered much support and commendation for being wonderfully designed with big open hallways and emphasized use of stairways, crime became an issue in stairs and halls as they were hard to make safe, conditions became horrible, eventually was demolished and considered a failure
Federal Interstate Highway Act
Planned route of highways that would travel between major cities. Was expected to help people move quickly into cities and also increase their appeal. The opposite happened and people moved farther out of town and it became a catalyst for blossoming suburbs
Environmental Movement
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
Jane Jacobs
Wrote "The Death and Life of Great American Cities". Critiqued the government's planning principles of the 1950s. Helped support neighborhoods and close-knit pedestrian-friendly areas. Let grassroots movement to stall proposed projects for the auotmobile
Iam McHarg
1969 book Design with Nature pioneered the concept of ecological planning. It continues to be one of the most widely celebrated books on landscape architecture and land-use planning. In this book, he set forth the basic concepts that were to develop later in Geographic Information Systems.
Rachel Carson
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
William (Holly) Whyte
Used time lapse photography to analyze people in the urban envir. Helped show the effectiveness of public spaces, set sidewalk widths, issues with jaywalking, how people react to interactive envir., etc. Contradicts the automobile and pedestrian separation
Smart Growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Shrinking Cities
Cities that are losing population to suburbs and sprawl. Causes industry to move closer to people which compounds the problem. Creates a decaying city with infrastructure that is not used, puts financial strain on city to maintain w/o the taxes. Happening faster than growth
Mortgage Interest Deduction
Allows people with mortgages to reduce their taxes paid by the interest paid on their housing loan. Helps give incentive to own a home, allows taxes to be less. Arguments about its viability about including it down's increase ownership rates
American Planning Association (APA)
a professional organization that represents the field of planning and its main function is to serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas between people who work in the field of planning
Visual Preference Surveys (VPS)
Seeing what people might like to see in designs of city projects
Ecological Footprint
A way of measuring how much of an impact a person or community has on the earth. Someone who uses more natural resources will have a bigger footprint than someone who uses less.
EcoDensity (Vancouver)
The EcoDensity Charter commits the City to make environmental sustainability a primary goal in all city planning decisions - in ways that also support housing affordability and livability - and the Initial Actions provide the 'roadmap' to begin implementation of the EcoDensity Charter
World Summit on Sustainable Development
In Johannesburg during 2002, the __________________________ brought together tens of thousands of participants, including heads of state and government, national delegates and leaders from NGOs, businesses, and other major groups to focus global attention and direct action toward meeting difficult development challenges, including improving people's lives and conserving our natural resources in a world that is growing in population, with ever-increasing demands for food, water, shelter, sanitation, energy, health services, and economic security.
Sustainability; Sustainable Development
Using natural resources without running out of them, and providing for human needs without causing long term environmental harm.
Via Verde (Bronx, NYC)
LEED certified subsidized apartment complex designed for low-income residents. Has a built in medical clinic to promote the community's health and has communal garden plots on the roof of the complex for use by its residents to promote local food movement. Its design encourages people to mix private and public living by making time spent outside more enjoyable.
Community Land Trusts
A non-profit or charitable organization created to own real estate (land and buildings) on behalf of the community in order to meet the long-term affordable housing and community development needs of low- to moderate-income households
Eco-Villages
who: Swiss foreigners hired by chinese politicians
what: attempting to make china more environmentally friendly
why: they want to change image as polluters
problems: were not targeting the cause of pollution, instead targeted innocent peasants who played no role in pollution in the first place.
Eco villages forced peasants to become ecological citizens
forcing people to adopt monetary society standards (pay for bills, use money, 9-5 jobs etc)
Centralization: relocation of these people
Two problems: Zao wasn't the problem, the wasteland was not really a wasteland, incorporate farmers into new monetary economy, however, it doesn't work and their turned into wage laborers
Cleveland Ecovillage
took an existing neighborhood in Cleveland and restored/ redeveloped it.
Christie Walk (Adelaide, Australia)
Christie Walk is a medium density co-housing development located in downtown Adelaide which combines many ecologically sustainable and community enhancing features
Granny Pods
Accessory housing units for elderly family members- created as a response to an aging population and affordable housing issues
Care Cottages
accessory unit that is brought in and attached to a home
Aging in Place
Remaining in the same home and community in later life, adjusting but not leaving when health fades.
Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORCs)
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Cohousing
Group living where there are private homes plus common facilities., clusters of houses having shared dining halls and other spaces, encouraging stronger social ties while reducing the material and energy needs of the community.
Bakken, Denmark
Example of cohousing
Trudeslund, Denmark
Example of cohousing
Central Living
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Accessory/ Secondary Housing Units
independent, complete living units created from surplus space, or added in inconspicuous ways, within single family homes or detached structures
New Urbanism
Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Kentlands, MD
new urbanism design, tries to make houses closer together and revive style of 1900's/1920's, make more walkable, etc.
Civano (Tucson, Arizona)
sustainable community which has green elements and mixed-use development
Seaside, FL
1984 construction begins. One of the earliest examples of New Urbanism (Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk). Unlike most early planned communities, New Urbanism emphasizes urban features: compactness, walkability, mixed use
- Promotes a nostalgic architectural style reminiscent of the traditional urban neighborhood. - - The movement has its links to anti-sprawl, smart growth movements
Celebration, FL
Represents the saturation of the Superbrand: 360 degree brand living, Live everyday of your life in the New Brand
Power comes from the top-down instead of representatives
Troy Gardens (Madison, WI)
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Community Land Trust
It is a private nonprofit organization that sells homes homes but leases the land it is on. Makes home ownership more affordable. One gets back what they put in. It keeps prices low by insulating property from speculation.
Baldwin Park (Orlando)
Neighborhood developed to be livable, walkable, and 3 miles from downtown Orlando. Built on a former site (Naval Trainign Center) that is home to 8000 residents and 135 businesses.
Nyland, CO
example of cohousing
Solara (San Diego)
Sustainable housing, Nonprofit housing producer makes units- first affordable housing project fully powered by the sun
Solaire (NYC)
First "green" residential building in NYC with a level Gold LEED rating. Currently sits as a very expensive and affluent neighborhood of NYC since developers were only required to set aside 10% of the units as "affordable housing"
LA Ecovillage
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The Crossings (Mountain View, CA)
An infill project from a shopping mall that is now replaced with homes, retail shops, and a daycare center- incorporates narrow streets and small pocket parks to create a walkable neighborhood. An example of a transit oriented development with it only being a 5 minute walk from any home to the stores/commuter rail station and 2 or less minute walk to a park.
Leiden, Netherlands
-Physical exercise is in everyday routine, bike to work, etc (vs. Americans have to make time)
-lots of 3rd places (not home or work); nature and h20 important
-interconnected and compact, can bike almost anywhere; at trainstation you see almost entirely bikes, very few cars
-see handout
-pedestrian, lots of places for kids to play; lots of spaces promoting social interaction
Cottage housing/Pocket Neighborhoods
New Cottage- concept embodied in Washington State, layering public and private buildings, shared gardens, creative ways to ensure privacy, nested housing where one entrance faces the closure of the next house

Promotes the idea of individuality and livign large in a small house- simple materials rich with details
The High Line (NYC)
Formerly elevated freight line in NYC that has turned into a walkway/park that serves as a successful and aesthetically pleasing public space with greenery and third-place areas to interact with people
Village Homes, CA
Sub division with east-west streets. Has natural drainage between homes which is so good that it is used by outside communities. All the trees in the neighborhood are produce trees (apple, pear, etc.) To pay for the workers, it has an almond grove. There aren't the typical facades of houses, as the main focus is toward the green space between houses.
Kronsberg (Hannover, Germany)
Urban planned community outside of Hannover. Utilizes central heating hub and passive solar heating to reduce energy consumption
South Village (Burlington, VT)
Traditional neighborhood development in Vermont. Incorporates a neighborhood within a community farm. Each home owner has the option to buy into the farm, receiving weekly produce
Portland, OR
Incorporates many of the ideals of the class. Limited the number of parking spaces in the city, implemented an urban growth boundary encouraging creative land use, intersection repair started here. Tram system is one of the best in America
Portland MAX
The light rail alternative transportation system
Urban Villages
areas of a city that people know well and in which they live, play, shop, and work
Subiaco Model Sustainable Home
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Freiburg, Germany
Eco-minded town in Germany that has an extensive tram system that runs through the city. Many of its environmental initiatives can be found in Vauban
Vauban
War engineer- fortified towns, trench warfare, defensive fronteirs
Freiburg Charter for Sustainable Urbanism
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Planning for Climate Change (Adaption and Mitigation)
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Living-over-the-Shop
One of the most basic multi-use building designs. Empty space above shops is converted to residential space, often used by the owner of the commercial space
Green Skyscrapers
40% of the world's energy is consumed by buildings. Green skyscrapers aim to improve the energy efficiency of buildings throughout their lifetime. LEED accreditation has greatly helped increase the number of green ss
Susanka's "Not So Big House"
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Urban Sprawl
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
Shrinking Cities
Refers to a global phenomenon whereby cities that lose their manufacturing also lose population. These cities must figure out what to do with the loss of population and subsequent land vacancy.
Mixed-Use Development
Single Planned Development designed for multiple use (residential, retail, industrial) to minimize travel to CBD
Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB)
This is a regional boundary set to promote the development of high density, pre-established urban growth and to limit the density in areas outside of the boundary

Portland DOwntown/Center City Plans promote regional greenspaces, environmental resource planning, and exclusive farm use zones
Copenhagen regional "fingers" plan (1947)
Development of areas surrounding Copenhagen that are transit-oriented. Each of Copenhagen's five fingers corresponds to one of the main metro lines for the area, which helps bring nature closer to the city because it fills the area between the fingers
Compact Urban Form
Attempts to develop higher density areas and clear community edges. Reduces the reliance on automobiles and creates a space where residents do not have to go far to acquire basic needs
Infill Development
development of vacant or underused parcels within a developed urban area
Transfer of Development Rights (TDR)
intent of TDR is to concentrate development in areas where it is wanted (receiving areas) and restrict it in areas where it is not (sending areas).
ex. Times Square in the 70s
-gives subsides and tax breaks
-provide a monetary incentive
-give grants or low interest loans
-BIDs
-property owners in SA who do not develop their properties to the full extent permitted by law may 'sell' their unused rights to property owners in RA
Problems:
-limited market for TDR since few owners have not developed to full extent
-fairness to property owners immediately outside RA
-administrative complexity
NIMBY
someone who objects to siting something in their own neighborhood but does not object to it being sited elsewhere
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth
Vancouver's "Living First" policy
Early 1990s Vancouver's city council adopted a new Central Area Plan based on a "living first" strategy, rezoning eight million sqft from commercial to residential areas and turning over old railroads along the waterfront for housing. Pushes for housing intensity, insists on housing diversity, builds coherent, identifiable neighborhoods, and fosters regional architectural principles. Puts residential higher than commercial for importance
Historic Chicago Bungalow Initiative
Launched by Mayor Richard M Daley in Sept 2000. Was designed to foster an appreciation of the buildings as a distinctive housing type, encourage sympathetic rehabilitation of them, and assist owners with adapting their homes to current needs, which helps strengthen these neighborhoods
Dutch Hofjes
Originally set up as religious centers. U-shaped buildings with courtyards found in the center. Several apts are within the building. The common green space in the middle creates an area for apt owners to meet
Live-Work units
Multi-use development intended for shop or business owners that want to live above their work space
Little Free Library
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Toy Libraries/Tool Libraries
Places that rent out tools/toys to the public. Supports the idea of borrowing instead of owning as a method to create sustainability. Community trust that items will be returned
Flexible Architecture/Design
Design concept kept in mind that things should be able to change and adapt to new circumstances in the future and that design should be flexible as their surroundings change. Plans ahead assuming there will be change
Adaptive Reuse
Using an older building for a purpose for which it was not originally intended. ex: Tate Modern art museum in London was originally a power plant
Gated Communities
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.
Boulder, CO
Infrastructure development limits urban growth, uses the Danish plan (allocates permissible growth annually on a point system basis), Greenbelt-retention of a circle of natural land around the city gives people in the city access to nature and protects wildlife
Davis, CA
Extremely bike-friendly, extensive bike lanes, paths and separated crossings; site of village homes- single family homes oriented away from streets, streets oriented east-west for better solar orientation, community shared spaces, solar hot water heating, "eco-Radburn"
Conservation Communities
The object of community-based conservation is to incorporate improvement to the lives of local people while conserving areas through the creation of national parks or wildlife refuges. While there have been some notable successes, unfortunately community-based conservation has often been ineffective because of inadequate resources, uneven implementation, and overly-wishful planning.
Prairie Crossing, IL
Conservation Community. Developed around a prairie, community dedicated to the conservation and preservation of the prairie lands; working farm within the development; incorporates some energy conservation/efficiency practices
Charlottesville Downtown Mall
One of the finest urban parks of the country
Pedestrian style mall
Public area in VA utilizing area-wide traffic management (closing off full areas to motorized vehicles)
Brownfields
abandoned polluted industrial sites in central cities, many of which are today being cleaned and redeveloped
greyfields
Abandoned buildings; previous "big-box" stores, shopping malls, warehouses, etc; potential for development- do not have to deal with contamination like for brownfields, more useful than developing previously undeveloped land
greenfields
Sites that have not been previously developed or built on, and which could support open space, habitat or agriculture.
Urban Greenbelts
Retention of a band of natural land around the city; gives people in the city access to nature and protects wildlife
Ex: Boulder
Free Range Kids
Encouraging children to get outside and be independent; decreasing worrying about kidnapping, etc. Facilitated by certain communities
Yard Farms
(e.g. Community Roots in Boulder, CO) Planting crops in yards of homes; homeowner gets a portion of the crop, the rest goes to local farms; better utilization of lawn space; farmers come in and take care of crops, this just gives them valuable land
Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)
A farm that has community members pay an annual or quarterly fee in exchange for a weekly share of produce or other farm products.
Survival gardens
Growing food at home because it saves money and is better for the environment in a number of ways
Urban Heat Island Effect
the heat that cities generate as a result of having many buildings and few trees or other vegetation
Third Places
Places other than home and work; site for social interaction; public spaces, e.g. coffee shops, community centers, etc
Circular Urban Metabolism
Everything being put into the city can be recycled/reused; reducing the waste created by cities; relying on supplies/resources from within city boundaries rather than outside
Inclusionary Zoning
zoning regulations that create incentives or requirements for affordable housing development
Density Bonuses
Incentives for building affordable housing units; when more affordable housing units are built, can build more "market-price" units than otherwise would have been allowed; exceeds density that would normally be allowed in the area
Green Urbanism
Incorporates green ideals into new urbanist design; much more dense than traditional new urbanism; alternative energy; links to transportation (new urbanism tends to be car dependent outside the neighborhood); ex: Civano, Eva-Lanxmeer
Growth Management
Key issues: protection of natural resources; substitution of sprawl with compact development; urban growth boundaries, infill, infrastructure-based development (can only sprawl as fast as infr does), high-density development, Vancouver's vertical plan
Traffic-Calming
Implementing devices/practices to slow traffic. Roundabouts, speed humps, medians, "naked streets". Increase drivers' awareness of surroundings, force them to pay more attention
Location-efficient Mortgages
Allow people to buy more expensive homes than they would otherwise be able to afford by buying in an area where they won't have to rely on a car, incentivizing TOD. Has been used in places such as the DC area homes near Metro stations
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)
A measure of transportation demand that estimates the travel miles associated with a project, most often for single-passenger cars. LEED sometimes uses a complementary metric for alternative-mode miles (e.g., In high-occupancy autos).
Car-sharing
Instead of owning a car, people have access to public vehicles for use when needed. Beneficial for people who generally use alternative modes of transit. Saves on expenses of owning a car
Personal Rapid Transit
Individual "pods" that hold about as many people as a car. Fixed routes and allow more direct routes than public transit because you decide the end location. ex: test system in Heathrow airport
Charlottesville Streetcar (proposed)
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Street permeability
The extent to which urban forms permit/restrict movement of people or vehicles in different directions- Charlottesville downtown mall with their area-wide traffic management
auto insurance "by the slice"
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high-speed rail
Extensive network in Europe, goes much faster than cars. Cheaper and more envir. friendly alternative to flying. Spain-Ave system proposed to have 90% of population w/in 30 minutes of a station
road pricing
Implementing some sort of charge on roads to incentivize driving less. ex: congestion charging (forces drivers to bear the cost of congestion, higher charge during peak hours), toll roads, HOT lanes
Central London Congestion Charge
Charges drivers a fee for entering the business district at certain times. Effort to decrease driving and congestion and encourage public transit. Has proven to be effective
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth
Vehicle Miles Traveled
Total number of miles driven by all vehicles in a given area and time period. Can also be expressed as per capita, and has been skyrocketing
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Form of public transportation that uses buses that provide a much faster and efficient service than a regular bus line. The greater speed and efficiency is generally accomplished by exclusive lanes, larger buses, subway-like stations, and computerized scheduling. BRTs are often compared to Light Rail Transit (LRTs) and there is debate as to which one is more economical (in the long run), efficient, and faster. These buses tend to sue diesel, but it is expected that they will eventually be hybrid vehicles.
Roundabouts
circular intersections and traffic circles with a circular island in the center, one or more lanes
Intersection Repair
Painting an intersection with elaborate design that creates a community gathering space and encourages drivers to slow down giving them a signal they are entering a neighborhood
Naked Streets/Intersections
Traffic calming concept in which streets are stripped of all road lanes and signs to force people to pay attention while driving; mental speed bumps
Smart Bikes
(e.g. Barcelona's Bicing) Bike sharing program used for daily city routes. Users must acquire a yearly membership and bike stations are throughout the city, usually located next to public transport stops to allow for intermodal use
High Speed Rail
Extensive network in Europe, goes much faster than cars. Cheaper and more envir. friendly alternative to flying. Spain-Ave system proposed to have 90% of population w/in 30 minutes of a station
Electric Bikes
Bikes powered by electric motors that encourage the idea of bicycling as a mode of transportation for the elderly and for harsh climates or topography. Becoming more popular in the Netherlands
Urban Density
concentration of people in a city, measured by the total number of people per square mile
Urban Heat Island Effect
Phenomenon in which a metropolitan area is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to the large amount of land coverage by buildings and roads. Planting trees can help to serve as natural air conditioners
Walking School Bus
Where a group of students and parents take advantage of the close proximity to a school by walking in groups instead of driving to avoid car dependence
Out of Reach Study
Side-by-side comparison of wages and rents in every county, metropolitan area, combined nonmetro area and state in the US. From the calculations, the hourly wage a worker must earn to afford the fair market's rent for a two BR home is derived
100-Mile Diet
Book where authors recount their experiences restricting their diet for a year to only foods grown within 100 miles of their residence
Nature-Deficit Disorder
Trend that children are spending less time outside which can be attributed to increasing consumption of electronic media resulting in behavioural problems/ disorders
Monocan Indian Nation
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Monte Alban (Oaxaca, Mexico)
Valley is surrounded by a ring of mtns.; peninsula that juts out= cite for the major city; decided location of city based on the geography; made a series of mtns on the edge w/ the flat area in the center; made their city to reflect the geography of the land; buildings look to nature; built their pyramids to emulate the mtns; land forms made into human emulation forms; nature drove the architectural forms
Interstate Highway System
A system of limited access roadways that connects all major cities in the US. The system was designed to give troops faster routes to get to destinations across the US in the event of an attack on the US. The system's main purpose now is travel by civilians.
Levittown
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
Pioneer Courthouse Square
Public space occupying a city block in downtown Portland, converted from parking space. Example of green spaces in cities and reclaiming streets. Contributes to sense of place/community
Pearl Court Apartments
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Glenwood Park (Atlanta)
Example of a compact, mixed use development that incorporates various housing styles like apts, single and multi family homes. High density, less reliance on cars, and pedestrian friendly
Form-Based Codes
Contrasting with conventional zoning codes promoting single use zoning, it is a new set of codes revolving around a goal to achieve a certain urban form with emphasis on pedestrians, walkability, compact urban form.

It is a response to the problems we are facing with sprawl and single-use zoning
Colorado Court (in Santa Monica)
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Hidden Springs (Boise, Idaho)
Example of conservation community, committed to saving land from ecological degradation. Part of sales price goes toward conservation
Peak Oil
the point when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached and at which the rate of production continues to decline
Mueller airport redevelopment (Austin, TX)
Community that was built on the former site of an airport (adaptive reuse). Developed on the principles of connectivity, walkability, convenience, diversity, and identity/ sense of place.
Dell's Children Hospital (Austin, TX)
World's first LEED certified hospital. As a green hospital it has a profound, measurable effect on healing. Once part of Mueller airport (adaptive reuse)
Noisette (North Charleston, SC)
Utilizes an intermodal transportation center. Combines a train station, local/regional bus routes and rental/ taxi car service in hub of city. Bike sharing program Rack and Ride
PARK(ing) Day
is the third friday of september when people transform simple parking spaces into miniature parks for a few hours. It was originally started in SF and has spread to 6 continents and a little less than 1000 parks. started in 2005