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Perception is the ______.
a. process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion b. act of selective attention from sensory storage c.interpretation of memory based on selective attention d.action of physical stimuli on receptors leading to sensations
Similarity is the tendency to perceive _____.
a. things that look similar as being part of the same group b. objects or figures on some background c. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex broken-up pattern d. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
The term used to describe the capacity of long-term memory is ____.
a. about 10000 items b. limited by the size of a person's brain c. 7 plus or minus 2 d. unlimited
Memories for general facts and personal information are called ______.
a. procedural memories b. factual memory c. declarative memories d. episodic memory
After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit cotton wool and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not ______ had occurred.
a. stimulus generalization b. extinction c. stimulus discrimination d. behavior modification
Which of the following processes occur in both operant conditioning and classical conditioning?
a. spontaneous recovery b. extinction c. generalization d. all of these
A ______ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic biological need such a hunger thirst or touch.
a. secondary b. positive c. negative d. primary
Most people have difficulty actually recognizing the correct image of the Lincoln penny. The most likely cause of this problem is _____.
a. interference b. memory trace decay c. encoding failure d. repression
When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it this is known as _____.
a. encoding failure b.auditory decay c. the tip-of-the-tongue effect d. extinction of acoustic storage
The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called _____.
a. classical conditioning b. effective based learning c. operant conditioning d. spontaneous recovery
Maintenance rehearsal is defined as _____.
a. analyzing new material in order to make it memorable b. associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory c. processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered d. repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory
The portion of memory that is more or less permanent is called ______.
a. primary memory b. long-term memory c. eidetic memory d. working memory
Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States but you can't remember. To aid your memory the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation the hint acted as a(n) ______.
a. elaborative rehearsal cue b. structural cue c. cross code d. retrieval cue
An important example of conditioned taste aversions might be ______.
a. farmers leaving out sheep meat laced with a nauseating substance for coyotes to find in hopes of teaching them not to eat sheep b. chemotherapy patients losing their appetites for food served around the same time they had their treatments c.Both of these are examples of taste aversions. d. Neither of these are examples of conditioned taste aversions.
What "magic number" did Miller find to be the capacity of short-term memory?
a. 11 b. 7 c. 9 d. 5
Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as ____.
a. altered states of consciousness b. hyperconsciousness c. unconscious states d. relaxed wakefulness
When given a list of items to remember you are more likely to remember ____.
a. the items in the beginning better than those in the middle or at the end b. the items at the end more than those in the middle or at the beginning of the list c. the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list d. the items in the middle more than those at the beginning or at the end
_____ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to ____ rehearsal.
a. Condensed; permanent b. Maintenance; elaborative c. Elaborative; maintenance d. Permanent; condensed
A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of _____.
a. learned helplessness b. vicarious learning c. avoidance learning d. aversive conditioning
Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
a. classical conditioning b. observational learning c. operant conditioning d. insight learning
Contiguity is the tendency to perceive ____.
a. objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group b. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping c. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex broken-up pattern d. two things that happen close together in time as being related
Which type of long-term memory is most difficult to bring into conscious awareness?
a. procedural memories b. declarative memories c. semantic memory d. episodic memory
The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions regardless of its distance from the viewer is known as _____.
a. brightness constancy b. color constancy c. shape constancy d. size constancy
Consciousness is the _____.
a. state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes b. memory of personally experienced events c. intentional recollection of an item of information d. awareness of ourselves and the environment
When given a list of items to remember people tend to do better at recalling the last items on the list. This is known as the ______.
a. primacy effect b. phi phenomenon c. chunking effect d. recency effect
As an infant Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat she started to cry. This is an example of _____.
a. instrumental learning b. observational learning c. habituation d. classical conditioning
Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior?
a. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented b. a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior c.a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher's approval for her behavior d. a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior
Which of the following statements is true of retrieval cues?
a. They have been recently shown to have little effect on the accessibility of information. b. They are important in helping us remember items stored in long‑term memory. c. They can be helpful in both long- and short‑term memory. d. They are aids in rote rehearsal in short‑term memory.
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original natural stimulus is called _______.
a. adaptation b. operant conditioning c. classical conditioning d. memory linkage
_____ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
a. Muscle memory b. Adaptation c. Memory enhancement d. Learning
When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response it is known as _______.
a. punishing reinforcement b. punishment by application c. punishment by removal d. negative reinforcement
Thorndike was known for his work with ___.
a. modeling b. a puzzle box c. a Skinner box d. monkeys
____ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses organizes and alters information as it stores it away and then retrieves the information from storage.
a. Operant conditioning b. Classical conditioning c. Memory d. Learning
What aspect of circadian rhythms might explain why we tend to feel so tired at night?
a. Body temperature bottoms out on Monday mornings. b. Heart rates typically increase at night. c. The three biorhythm patterns converge at low points on Mondays. d. There is an organ in the brain sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness.
Learning is said to be a relatively permanent change in behavior because _____.
a. it is thought that when learning occurs some part of the brain physically changes b. once you learn something you will never fail to remember it or carry out the correct action c. memory processes unlike learning processes are not permanent d. it is thought that learning changes the nerve fiber patterns in your muscles
A piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under moonlight even though there is less light being reflected off the paper under moonlight. This form of perceptual constancy is called _____.
a. size constancy b. color constancy c. brightness constancy d. shape constancy
You are out for a drive with the family and are lucky enough to get a window seat. The rapidly passing scenery you see out the window is first stored in _______.
a. long-term memory b. echoic memory c. short-term memory d. iconic memory
Miranda notices that her cat salivates as soon as her cat hears the sound of the electric can opener. In this example the sound of the can opener is the ________.
a. positive reinforcer b. conditioned stimulus c. secondary reinforcer d. primary stimulus
Which of the following is an example of a test using recall?
a. short answer b. essay c. fill-in-the-blank d. All of these are examples that use recall.
Closure is the tendency ________.
a. to perceive objects, or figured on some background b. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex broken-up pattern c. to complete figures that are incomplete d. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
Proximity is the tendency _________.
a. to complete figures that are incomplete b. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping c. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern d. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
The state we are in when we are awake and reasonably alert is called ______.
a. waking consciousness b. altered state of consciousness c. intelligence d. self-awareness
Proactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when ______.
a. information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time b. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information c. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information d. information is not attended to and fails to be encoded
Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?
a. if it is a primary reinforcer b. if it is a positive reinforcer c. regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur. d. if it is a negative reinforcer
What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1-4 of sleep?
a. Non-REM sleep b. paradoxical sleep c. REM sleep d. REMN sleep
The processes of encoding storage and retrieval are seen as part of the ____ model of memory.
a. information processing b. classical conditioning c. top-down storage d. Tolman's cognitive
_____ is retention of memory for some period of time.
a. Evaluation b. Encoding c. Retrieval d. Storage
Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to _____.
a. decay or disuse b. interference from other information c. encoding failure d. none of these
If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend not to be repeated." This is a statement of _______.
a. Rescorla's cognitive perspective b. Thorndike's Law of Effect c. Garcia's conditional emotional response d. the law of positive reinforcement
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