95 terms

AP US History Chapters 17-19

"Feet of Clay"
President Harrison is controllable; Clay will try to control him during his presidency
Tyler Too!
Harrison dies 1 month into office and VP John Tyler becomes president; this is the first time we had to deal with a prez dying; Clay argued that Tyler could not take office
3rd BUS?
Henry Clay wants a bank, so he proposes a bank, Tyler vetoes it; Tyler is a "Democrat in Whig clothing'; Clay encourages Tyler's cabinet to quit and they all do except Webster; Clay tried to impeach Tyler
Pre-emption Act (1841)
Tyler signed; allows the people in the west to stay and get the first chance at buying land (min 160 acres); 'Squatters' are people living on someone else's land
Treaty of Wanghia (1844)
Tyler sends Caleb Cusshing to China to negotiate for trade relations with China; 4-5 Chinese cities opened for trade with the US; "extraterritoriality"
Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation. (usually only between trading nations)
"Princeton" Explosion
Tyler had a party on a boat and he was down in the lower part of the boat when the cannon backfired; NY senator Gardner dies and Tyler marries his daughter
Webster-Ashburton Treaty; est. the Maine border; US got 7,000 of the 12,000 miles
Lake of the Woods
Lake Superior; Minnesota border, later discover huge supply of iron ore there
a criminal/slave escapes from their state, the other state/country ships them back to their home state
John L. O'Sullivan
"manifest destiny"; his newspaper " Democratic Review" in NY
Lone Star noise
Sam Houston/Texas was caught making several treaties with various European countries
make part of a country, to add
Joint Resolution
majority rule of all of Congress; Tyler suggests because he believes it will be too difficult to get a 2/3 vote of the senate to approve the annexation of Texas
Young Hickory
Polk beats Clay in the 1844 election; Clay tried to ride both the North and South sides
George Dallas
Polk's VP from PA; was in favor of annexing Texas and Dallas, TX is named for him
Hudson's Bay Co.
British fur trading company, they had wiped out the fur in the Oregon territory; British gives to US
"Oregon on Bust"
the wagon journey to the Oregon territory was rough; bust- died
Marcus Whitman
Presbyterian, missionary to Oregon after 2nd G.A.
Pierre de Smet
Catholic, missionary to Oregon after 2nd G.A.
Jason Lee
Methodist, missionary to Oregon after 2nd G.A.
Willamette Valley
South Columbia River; US does not get Vancouver, stays with Canada
must cross the Puget Sound to get there; International Harbor
"Fifty-Four Forty of Fight!"
Polk doesn't want to fight because he knows that we will lose; settles with the 49th paralled
Nueces River and Rio Grande River
Mexico said that the Neuces River was the boundary line for Texas and US said that it was the Rio Grande. (one cause of the Mexican War)
The Mormon "Trek"
1846 Mormons head to Utah hoping to be out of US territory and out of their control; this does not last long as the US gains this land soon after
The California Trail
From end of the Oregon Trail to Sacramento, CA; had to cross the harsh Sierra-Nevada Mountains
"Donner" Party
travelers that were traveling along the California Trail and got stuck in the Sierra-Nevada Mountains; resorted to canabolism to survive
Santa Fe Trail
Missouri to Santa Fe, NM; William Becknell is the creator (1820)
William Becknell
Merchant from Missouri who put the Santa Fe Trail together; primarily as a travel route for businesses
Was against the war with Mexico; spent the night in jail because he refused to pay the poll tax to support the war; wrote essays "Civil Disobedience" while in jail
Against the war with Mexico; Whig from Illinois; questioned "Where was blood shed?"; "spotty Lincoln"
"The Biglow Papers"
series of essays written by James Russel Lowell (fireside poet); against the war with Mexico, "Who's war?"
James Russel Lowell
wrote the Biglow Papers; against the war with Mexico; "Who's war?"; his home state of MA even supported the war
The "Pathfinder of the West"
John Frémont; senator from Missuori; 1st republican party's nomination; organizes the Bear Flag Republic in CA; plays the Texas game
John Frémont
"Pathfinder of the West"; senator from Missouri; 1st republican party's nomination; organizes the Bear Flag Republic in CA; plays the Texas game
John Sloat, David Stockton
naval commanders during the Mexican war; supported the Bear Flag revolt
Live in CA, of Mexican/Spanish descent (13,000)
Americans moving to CA, only about 1,000 compared with the 13,000 Californios; Anglos prevail
Vera Cruz
East of Mexico City; our first "d-day"; Winfield Scott lands several ships on the coast (1847)
Old castle, east of Mexico City; los ninos heros were there- teenagers, cadettes defending the castle
Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty; ends the Mexican War; US gets the entire SW for $15mil plus $3.25mil (Mexico's debt)
The Mexican "cession"
Nickname for the land the US gets in the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty
Lee and Grant
Serve together during the Mexico War; oppossing generals during the Civil War
The WP
Wilmot Proviso (1846); David Wilmot; any land the US acquired during the Mexican War was to remain slavery free, no slaves allowed; Southern senators do not let pass
Northern politicians that are sympathetic with the South; during the Antebellum period; President Franklin Pierce (1852) is an example
Edmund Ruffin, William Yancey, Robert Rhett
Fire eaters, southerners that want to leave the Union as soon as possible
Kanagawa (Yokohama)
In 1854 Matthew Perry went to Japan to make a treaty; we got Japanese ports opened to us and extra-territoriality; Perry had bombed it to get the attn of the Japanese
James Marshall
A carpenter in CA who was sent to build Sutter's Mill by his boss and discovered gold; American River; 1848
"vigilante" justice
Described CA during the 1840's; there was no law or law enforcements; take the law into your own hands
Bret Harte
Short story writer about CA miners; "The Luck of Roaring Camp"
Mark Twain
"Roughing It"
Richard Henry Dana
Went to Harvard, went on a sailing trip and wrote "Two Years Before the Mast" on his trip
"omnibus" bill
Nickname for the Compromise of 1850; opened eligibility for statehood for CA, was a package with several parts/things in it; does pass, prez Fillmore signs it into law, 'postpones' the Civil War
7 months
The Compromise of 1850 is debated
4th of March
John Calhoun says no to the Compromise of 1850; suggested 2 presidents (one for the N and S); James Mason has to give his speech for him
7th of March
Daniel Webster (MA) says yes to the Compromise of 1850
Henry "Box" Brown
Slave that escapes from VA in 1850 by being shipped in a crate; 27 hours
Anthony Burns
Slave that escapes from VA but is caught by a slave catcher and put into jail; 500 people show up to break him out of jail; he ends up being shipped back to VA
"personal liberty" laws
It is optional for one to obey the fugitive slave law
3 ambassadors that meet in Osten, Belgium to discuss Cuba
"Pearl of the Antilles"
What Cuba is to Spain; US wanted to make Cuba a slave state and take it by force
Narciso Lopez
Was planning a filibuster (an unlawful/illegal military expedtion) to liberate Cuba; failed
Canal talk...
Panama & Nicaragua were possible canal locations; US ends up not building bc we have no money and technology; US makes treaty with england that they will do it together
David Rice Atchison
Prez for 1 day; President Polk's term ended at noon on March 4, 1849 which was a Sunday. Prez Zachary Taylor refused to be sworn into office on Sunday, Taylor's VP running mate Millard Fillmore had not been sworn in yet; as President pro tempore, and therefore Acting Vice President, under the presidential succession law in place at the time, Atchison was Acting President.
William King
Pierce's VP; a southerner; was in Cuba for health problems and took his oath while in Havana, Cuba (1853)
2nd Era of Good Feelings
During the Pierce administration, not really good feelings with slavery (1st was under Munroe)
Jeff Davis's Canal
Sec. of War for Pierce; gets a survey to convince Pierce to agree to get land from the Gadsen Purchase for a railroad and $40,000 on camels from Egypt
Hinton Rowan Helper's Book
"The impending Crisis"; NC; a white southerner who does not own slaves and believes slavery is destroying his state
K-N Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act; Stephen Douglas wants a RR in the N not the S, he sponsors the bill to develop Nebraska so he can get the RR; must get rid of Missouri Compromise line
on the cover of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"; a slave woman running away; mother & child
Simon Legree
character in "Uncle Tom's Cabin", a Yankee from VT and the slave master of Tom; the book is not about the South, rather about slavery; Simon Legree gets 2 other slaves to beat up Tom
popularity of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"; dozens of plays in the North; world-wide
The Beechers
Lyman (father), Henry Ward (brother, "Beecher's Bibles), Catherine (sister), Harriet ("God wrote it")
Shawnee Mission vs. Topeka
Shawnee Mission- Kansas, proslavery; border ruffians from Missouri; Topeka- free soilers
Horace Greeley
Newspaper editor in NY; "NY Tribune"; "Bleeding Kansas"; Should slavery be in Kansas?
Kansas mascot; blue-jay and hawk
Andrew Butler
senator from SC; cousin is Preston Brooks (beats Charles Sumner)
"Sumner Sticks"
On Brooks porch when he got home to SC, southerners support
John C. Breckinridge
Buchanan's VP; Kansas; southerner that owns slaves; youngest VP 36 yrs old
John Emerson
the owner of Dred Scott; an army doctor and took Dred with him traveling; he dies, his wife cannot own Scott and they have no kids
John Sanford
John Emerson's brother in-law; was the next male heir; NY; frees Dred Scott when he gets him
"by the way", something else; Supreme Court says that the Missouri Compromise should not have been passed, not constitutional
"A house divided..."
Abraham Lincoln says in his speech after he is nominated as the Prez candidate for Republicans; from the Bible
Douglas vs. Lincoln Debates
In 7 Illinois locations: Ottawa, Quincy, Alton, Galesburg, Freeport*, Charleston, Jonesboro
Freeport, IL
Lincoln asks Douglas "Explain how popular sovierghty and the Dred Scott decision can coexist?"; the Freeport doctrine is Douglas's answer: if there are no slave codes
The Secret 6
The 6 men that supplied John Brown with supplies and money for Harper's Ferry raid
"the baboon"
Nickname for Abraham Lincoln by critics; his looks and inexperience- only 1 term in House of Rep
the "railsplitter" of Sangamon County
railsplitter- splitting wood for fences; Sangamon County- where Abe Lincoln grew up; he was a common man
Hannibal Hamlin
VP for Lincoln; 1860; senator from Maine
John J. Crittenden
Critteden Compromise; like Clay; Kentucky
"border states"
state that stays loyal to the Union but has slavery; Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, (WV); they could change the balance of the Civil War
"foreign eyes"
France and England are amused with the Civil War; they would probably support the south because of cotton; Russia would side with north
"Oh for an hour of Jackson"
What northerners said during the Civil War; Andrew Jackson would have gone to war right away
What happened?
1) Slavery 2) Population #'s 3) "vassalage" issue 4) George III = Abraham Lincoln