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BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS (Chapter 13)
Terms in this set (41)
Genetic change in a population or species over generations; all the changes that transform life on Earth; the heritable changes that have produced Earth's diversity of of organisms.
An inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. (Also, the accumulation of these favorable traits in the population over time.)
The preserved remnant or impression of a past organism. These can be made through processes like petrification, phenomena like casts, or substances/environments like amber, ice, and acid bogs.
"On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection"
The first book of Charles Robert Darwin (a British biologist), published in November 1859. It presented evidence that evolution happens and offered a logical explanation of how it happens.
Descent with modification
Darwin's initial phrase for the general process of evolution; the process by which descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life.
The differential success in reproduction by different phenotypes resulting from interactions with the environment. Evolution occurs when this process produces changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in the population's gene pool.
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable inherited traits in offspring.
A scientist who studies fossils.
The chronicle of evolution over millions of years of geologic time in the order in which fossils appeared in the rock strata.
A layer of sedimentary rock formed as sediments of sand and mud were compressed into rock by overlaying deposits. The plural is "strata."
The study of past and present distribution of species.
The study of body structure in different organisms.
Anatomical similarity due to common ancestry.
A structure that is similar in different species of common ancestry.
A structure of marginal, if any, importance to an organism. It is a historical remnant of a structure that had an important function in the organism's ancestors.
The study of formation, early growth, and development of different organisms.
Also known as molecular genetics; the study of the molecular basis of genes and gene expression.
A group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area.
A group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed.
The study of genetic changes (or the science of microevolutionary changes) in populations.
A comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin's ideas, focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution.
All of the genes in a population at any one time.
A change in a population's gene pool over a succession of generations; evolutionary changes in a species over a short period of time.
The principle that the shuffling of genes that occurs during sexual reproduction, by itself, cannot change the overall genetic makeup of the population.
In order for this principle to be true, these five criteria also must be true:
1) Large population.
2) No gene flow.
3) Mutations don't alter the gene pool.
4) Mating is random.
5) Equal reproductive success.
A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance.
Genetic drift resulting from a drastic reduction in population size.
A random change in the gene pool that occurs in a small colony of the population.
The gain or loss of alleles from a population by the movement of individuals or gametes out of or into the population.
Refers to a population in which two or more physical forms are present in noticeable frequencies.
A gradient in an inherited trait along a geographic continuum; variation in a population's phenotypic features that parallels the environmental gradient.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity.
Also known as "balanced polymorphism," it is natural selection that maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in the population.
The greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve the variation in the gene pool.
The decline in the reproductive success of a morph's phenotype resulting from a morphiphenotype becoming too common in populations; the cause of balanced polymorphism.
Genetic variation that provides no apparent selective advantage for some individuals over others.
The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation (relative to the contribution of other individuals in the kingdom).
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes.
Natural selection that acts against relatively rare individuals at one end of a phenotypic range.
Natural selection that favors the extreme over intermediate phenotypes.
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
Why can't natural selection fashion perfect organisms?
1) Organisms are limited by historical constraints (AKA, ancestral anatomy).
2) Adaptations are often compromises.
3) Chance and natural selection intersect.
4) Selection can only edit existing variations.
Recommended textbook explanations
Biology Exploring Life
Brad Williamson, Neil A Campbell, Robin J. Heyden
Johnson, Peter H. Raven
Biology The Dynamics of Life
Modern Biology: Student Edition
Janet L. Hopson, Postlethwait
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