US Government Exam 1 chap1-3

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Terms in this set (...)

Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution ,between a central government and regional government
Unitary System
a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government
Expressed Powers
Specific powers granted by the constitution to congress (Article 1, Section 8) and to the president (Article 2)
Implied Powers
powers derived from Necessary and Proper clause Article 1, Section 8, of the constitution; such power are not specifically expressed, but are implied though the expansive interpretation of delegated powers
Necessary and Proper clause
Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution, which provides congress with the authority to make all laws Necessary and Proper to carry out its expressed powers
Reserve Power
power derived from the 10th amendment to the constitution,that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states
Police Power
powers reserved to the state government to regulate the health,safety, and morals of its citizens
Concurrent Power
authority possessed by both state and national government, such as the power to levy taxes
Full Faith and Credit
provision from article 4,section 1, of the constitution, requiring that the states normal honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in other states
Privileges and Immunities Clause
provision from article 4,section 2, of the constitution, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges
Home Rule
powers delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affair
Dual Federalism
the system of government that prevailed in the united states from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state government
Commerce Clause
Article 1, section 8, of the constitution, which delegates to congress the powers " to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states and with the indian tribes"; this clause was interpreted by the supreme court in favor of national power over economy
State' Rights
the principal that the states should oppose the increase authority of the national government; this principal was most popular in the period before the civil war
Grant-in-aid
programs through which congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds employed for purpose defined by the federal government
Categorical Grants
congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expeniture be limited to a problem or group specified by law
Cooperative Federalism
a type of federalism existing since the new deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals; also known as intergovernmental cooperational
Regulated Federalism
a form of federalism in which congress imposes legislation on states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards
Preemption
the principal that allows the national government to override state or local action in certain policy areas; in foreign policy, the willingness to strike first in order to prevent an enemy attack
Unfunded Mandates
regulation or conditions fot receiving grants that impose costs on state and local government for which they are not reimbursed by federal government
devolution
a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government , such as from the national government to the state and local government
Block Grants
federal grants-in-aid that allows states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent
New Federalism
attempts by president nixon and reagan to return power to the state through block grants
General Revenue Sharing
the process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established formula; revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to state govenment
Articles of Confederations
Americas first written consitution served as a basis for america's national government until 1789
Confederation
A system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government
Virginia Plan
Framework for the constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that called for representation in the national legisalture based on the population of each state
New Jersey Plan
Framework for the new constitution, introduced by William Paterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population
Great compromise
The agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in house of representatives to population
Three-Fifths Compromise
The agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention pf 1787 that stipulated that for the purposes of the appointment of congressional seats, each slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person
Checks and Balances
Mechanism though which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of other branches
Electoral College
The electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for the president and vice president
Bill of Rights
The first 10 Amendments to the U.S Constitution
Separation of Powers
The division of governmental powers among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making
Federalism
a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution ,between a central government and regional government
Expressed Powers
Specific powers granted by the constitution to congress (Article 1, Section 8) and to the president (Article 2)
Elastic Clause
Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution ( also known as the Necessary and Proper Clause ) which enumerates the powers of congress and provides congress with the authority to make all laws "Necessary and proper" to carry them out
Bicameral
having legislative assembly composed of two cambers or houses
Judicial Review
The power of the courts to review and, if necessary,declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional
Supremacy clause
Article 6 of the constitution, which states that laws passed by national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
Federalists
those who favored a strong national government and supported the constitution proposal at the constitutional convention of 1787
Antifederalists
those who favored a strong state government and a weak national government, and who were opponents of the constitution proposal at the constitutional convention of 1787
Federalist Papers
a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, Jame Madison, and John Jay supporting ratification of the constitution
Tyranny
Oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority
Limited Government
a principal of the constitution government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
Amendment
A change added to a bill,law, or constitution
Government
Institutions and procedures though which a territory and its people are ruled
Politics
Conflict over the leadership,structure,and policies of government
Citizenship
Informed and active membership in a political community
Autocracy
A form of government in a single individual-a king, a queen, or dictator
Oligarchy
A form of Government in which a small group-landowners,military officer, or wealthy merchants- controls most of the governing decision
Democracy
A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public
Constitutional Government
A system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on powers of govenment
Authoritarian Government
A system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may never-less by the power of other social institution
Totalitarian Govenment
A system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it
Power
Influence over a government's leadership,organization, or policies
Representative Government (Republic)
A system of Government in which the populace select representative, who play a significant role in the governmental decision making
Direct Democracy
A system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on law and polices
Pluralism
The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government;the outcome of this compromise and moderation
political culture
Broadly shared values,beliefs,and attitude about how the government should function.American political culture emphasizes the value of liberty, equality,and democracy
Liberty
Freedom from Governmental control
Limited Government
A principal of constitutional government:a government whose power are defined and limited by a constitution
Laissez-Faire Capitalism
An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference
Equality of Opportunity
A widely shared American idea that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential
Political Equality
The right to Participate in politics equally based on the principle of 'one person,one vote"
Popular Sovereignty
A principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people
Majority Rule,Minority Right
The democratic principle that a government following the preferences of the majority of voter but protects the interests of the minority
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