Upgrade to remove ads
Sociology exam terms ch 1-5
Terms in this set (71)
the systematic or scientific study of human society and social behavior, from large-scale institutions and mass culture to small groups and individual interactions.
term developed by emile durkheim to describe the type of social bonds present in modern societies, based on difference, interdependence, and individual rights.
Means of Production
anything that can create wealth: money, property, factories, and other types of businesses, and the infrastructure necessary to run them.
the sense of dissatisfaction the modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else, according to Karl Marx
the application of economic logic to human activity, the use of formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns.
A political system based on state ownership or control of principle elements of the economy in order to reduce levels of social inequality.
workers; those who have no means of production of their own and so are reduced to selling their labor power in order to live.
abstract propositions that explain the social world and make predictions about the future
"normlessness"; term used to describe the alienation and lose of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change
owners; the class of modern capitalists who own the means of production and employ wage laborers
a system of beliefs, attitudes, and values that directs a society and reproduces the status quo of the bourgeoisie
Max Weber's pessimistic description of modern life, in which we are caught in bureaucratic structures that control our lives through rigid rules and rationalization.
term developed by emile durkheim to describe the type of social bonds present in premodern, agrarian societies, in which shared traditions and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion.
the part of the population that will be studied
a research method based on questionnaires that are administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population
a method in which researchers identify and study specific variables--such as words--in a text, image, or media message.
a methodology associated with ethnography whereby the researcher both observes and becomes a member in a social setting.
the entire way of life of a group of people (including both material and symbolic elements) that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next.
positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for violations.
a loosely enforced norm involving common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance.
the dissemination of material and symbolic culture (tools and technology, beliefs and behavior) from one group to another.
the principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to one's own culture.
the process by which cultures that were once unique and distinct become increasingly similar.
ideas about what is desirable or contemptible and right or wrong in a particular group; they articulate the essence of everything that a cultural group cherishes and honors.
a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, and lifestyle.
the ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and communication).
a group within society that openly rejects and/or actively opposes society's values and norms
a norm ingrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror, or revulsion.
the objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork, any physical object to which we give social meaning.
the imposition of one culture's beliefs and practices on another culture through mass media and consumer products rather than by military force.
a norm that carries great moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a cultural group, and often involves severe repercussions.
a rule or guideline regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture
this process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group, by which we become functioning members of society.
the individual's conscious, reflexive experience of a personal identity separate and distinct from other individuals.
the process of replacing previously learned norms and values with new ones as a part of a transition in life.
the set of behaviors expected of someone because of his or her status
a status generated by physical characteristics.
a status that is always relevant and affects all other statuses we possess
an institution in which individuals are cut off from the rest of society so that their lives can be controlled and regulated for the purpose of systematically stripping away previous roles and identities in order to create new ones.
experienced when we occupy two or more roles with contradictory expectations
the tension experienced when there are contradictory expectations within one role
a position in a social hierarchy that carries a particular set of expectations
a status earned through individual effort or imposed by others
an inborn status; usually difficult or impossible to change
a three-person social group
in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement.
a group that one identifies with and feels loyalty toward
the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect the individual.
power that is backed by the threat of force
a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other.
people we might not think of as mattering much to our sense of happiness or well-being, but who nonetheless play an important role in our otherwise fragmented postmodern lives.
any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward
the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong.
authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader
not only influences an individual's health but can spread everything from obesity to smoking and substance abuse.
larger and less intimate than primary groups, members' relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary.
a group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves.
the legitimate right to wield power
Authority based in laws, rules, and procedures, not in the heredity or personality of any individual leader
Leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group.
Authority based in custom birthright, or divine right
A type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, rules and regulations, impersonality, and formal written communication
Leadership that is task or goal oriented.
the people who are most important to our sense of self; members' relationships are typically characterized by face-to-face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging.
the ability to control the actions of others
a two-person social group
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Sociology 210 Chapter 1 Vocab: Wake Tech: Dr. Will…
Exam 3 Ch. 6
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Sociology Quiz 1
Sociology Unit 1 Vocab
Sociology Unit 1 Vocab
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR