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which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate

inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common

what was the result of inter-clan rivalries

it weakened the bedouin in comparison to neighboring peoples and empires

what clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca


What was the Ka'ba

the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce

What was the major difference between Medina and Mecca

Political dominance in Medina was ocntested between a number of Jewish and bedouin tribes.

which of the following statements most accurately describes the status of women in bedouin society prior to Islam

women in pre-Islamic bedouin culutre enjoyed greater freedom and higher status than those of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.

what was the nature of pre-Islamic bedouin religion

bedouin religion for most clans was a blend of animism and polytheism focusing on the worship of nature spirits

what was the clan into which Muhammad was born

Banu Hashim

what was the initial response of the Umayyads to Muhammad's new faith

they regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of the Ka'ba

what was the principle advantage of the Islamic concept of the ummah

it transcended old tribal boundaries and made possible political unity among Arab clans

which of the following represents a mounting pressure for change in pre-Islamic society greater

Byzantine and Sassanian control over Arabic tribes of the peninsula and Arabic migration to Mesopotamia

which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is NOT correct

Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population

the Umayyads were threatened by all of the following developments EXCEPT

Muhammad's destruction of the Ka'ba

What was Muhammad's teachings with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions

Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones

which of the following was NOT a reason for the decline of the Abbasid dynasty by the ninth century AD

the collapse of the cities

which of the following groups did NOT revolt against Abbasid rule


how did the Caliph al-Mahdi resolve the problem of succession in the Abbasid dynasty

he failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession with disastrous results

what was the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid

The thousand and one nights

how did the administration of al-Rashid set a trend for subsequent Abbasid rulers

he was at the outset of his reign heavily dependent on Persian advisers, a practice that became commonplace thereafter

what was the result of the civil wars following the deaht of al-Rashid

candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers

which of the following statements concerning the mercenary armies of the later Abbasid era is NOT accurate

despite their tendency toward random violence, they loyally defended the Abbasid Caliphs

what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire

spiralling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages

what was the innovation of the Abbasid court with respect to women

the creation of Islamic nunneries

what was the attitude of the Abbasid's towards the institution of slavery the Abbasid elite demanded

growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service

why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in Islamic society

women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected

which of the following statements concerning women during the Abbasid era is most accurate

women often married at puberty, set at age nine

what was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid Empire

despite political disintegration and a decline in agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly

what was the primary language of the later Abbasid court


what was the difference between the Islamic invasions of India and previous incursions of the subcontinent

with the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own

how did Islam and Hinduism differ

Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system

what was Harsha's religious policy

Harsha remained steadfastly loyal to Hinduism and suppressed the few remaining Buddhist monasteries in his empire

which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct descendant of the Roman Empire

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire lasted from roughly


which of the following territories was always part of the Byzantine Empire


the significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT

the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East

Which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western Europe

Northern political units rapidly dominated the political sophistication of civilization areas in Asia and North Africa

what was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western Roman Empires

the Byzantine Empire recruited men from the Middle East

the name normally given to the form of Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire was

Orthodox Christianity

what Eastern emperor was responsible for the attempted restoration of a united Roman Empire after 533


all of the following were outcomes of Justinian's wars of reconquest EXCEPT

the permanent addition of Rome to the Byzantine Empire

after the seventh century, what group posed the greatest threat to the eastern frontiers of the Byzantine Empire

the Arab Muslims

in which of the following ways were the Byzantine bureaucracy and the Chinese bureaucracy similar

both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats

which of the following statements concerning Byzantine military organization is most accurate

the Byzantine Empire recruited troops within the empire by granting heritable land in return for military service

which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the Byzantine Empire is most correct

Constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small

which of the following statements concerning the merchant class of the Byzantine Empire is most accurate

there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the Byzantine Empire, but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy

the religious controversy over the use of religious images in worhip that broke out in the tenth century was called

the iconoclastic controversy

what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language

Cyril and Methodius

why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism

he believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by state

of the following statements concerning the Tatar invasion of Russia is most accurate

Tatar supervision did not destroy Russian Christianity or a native Russian aristocracy

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