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science olympiad optics
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Gravity
Terms in this set (57)
periodic motion
motions that repeat in a regular cycle
simple harmonic motion
the force that restores the object to its equilibrium position is directly proportional to the displacement of the object
period
denoted T, the time needed for an object to repeat one complete cycle of motion
amplitude
maximum distance that the object moves from equilibrium
Hooke's Law
states that the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the amount that the spring is stretched
Hooke's Law Equation
F = -kx : Hooke's Law Equation states that the force exerted by a spring is equal to the spring constant times the distance the spring is compressed or stretched from its equilibrium position
(k) - the spring constant which depends on the stiffness and other properties of the spring
(x) - the distance that the spring is stretched from its equilibrium position
Potential energy equation
PE = 1/2kx^2 the potential energy in a spring is equal to one-half times the product of the spring constant and the square of the displacement
pendulum
consists of a massive object, called the bob, suspended by a string or light rod of length 1
period of a pendulum
T = 2π√1/g : the period of a pendulum is equal to two pi times the square root of the length of the pendulum divided by the acceleration due to gravity
resonance
occurs when small forces are applied at regular intervals to a vibrating or oscillating object and the amplitude of the vibration increases
wave
a disturbance that carries energy through matter or space
wave pulse
a single bump or disturbance that travels through a medium
periodic wave
the wave moves up and down at the same rate
transverse wave
vibrates perpendicular to the direction of the wave's motion
longitudinal wave
the disturbance is in the same direction as or parallel to the direction of the wave's motion
surface wave
the particles move in a direction that is both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of wave motion
speed
v = △d/△t
△d being the displacement of the wave peak
△t being the time interval
trough
a low point in a wave
crest
a high point in a wave
wavelength
shortest distance between points where the wave pattern repeats itself
phase
any two points on a wave that are one or more whole wavelengths apart
frequency
the number of complete oscillations it makes each second, measure in hertz
frequency of a wave
f = 1/T : the frequency of a wave is equal to the reciprocal of the period
wavelength
λ = v/f : the wavelength of a wave is equal to the velocity divided by the frequency
incident wave
wave that strikes the boundary
reflected wave
some of the energy of the incident wave's pulse is reflected backward into the larger spring
principle of superposition
states that the displacement of a medium caused by two or more waves is the algebraic sum of the displacements caused by the individual waves - BASICALLY two or more waves can combine to form a new wave
interference
if the waves move in opposite directions, they can cancel or form a new wave of lesser or greater amplitude
node
a wave that does not move at all
antinode
a wave that pass through each other without changing shapes or sizes
standing wave
the wave appears to be standing still
wave front
a line that represents the crest of a wave in two dimensions and it can be used to show waves of any shape, including circular waves and straight waves
ray
a line drawn at a right angle to the crest of the wave
normal
the direction of the barrier also shown by a line, which is drawn at a right angle, or perpendicular to the barrier
law of reflection
states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
refraction
the change in the direction of waves at the boundary between two different media
ray model of light
light is represented as a ray that travels in a straight path, the direction of which can be changed only by placing an obstruction in the path
luminous source
object that emits light, ex. the sun
illuminated source
object that becomes visible as a result of the light reflecting off of it, ex. the moon
opaque
media that do not transmit light, but reflect some light, ex. brick
transparent
media that transmit light, ex. air and glass
translucent
media that transmit light, but do not permit objects to be seen clearly through them, ex. lamp shades and frosted lightbulbs
luminous flux
denoted P, the rate at which light energy is emitted from a luminous source
illuminance
the illumination of a surface or the rate at which light strikes the surface
point source illuminance
E = P/4πr^2 : if an object is illuminated by a point source of light, then the illuminance at the object is equal to the luminous flux of the light source, divided by the surface area of the sphere, whose radius is equal to the distance the object is from the light source
speed of light
c = 3.00 x 10^8 m/s
diffraction
the bending of light around a barrier
primary color
red, green, and blue
secondary color
yellow, cyan, and magenta because each is a combination of two primary colors
complementary colors
two colors of light that can be combined to make white light
primary pigment
a pigment that absorbs only one primary color and reflects two from white light is reflected
secondary pigment
a pigment that absorbs two primary colors and reflects one color
polarization
the production of light in a single plane of oscillation
Malus's Law
I₂ = I₁ cos^2ϑ the intensity of light coming out of a second polarizing filter is equal to the intensity of polarized light coming out of a first polarizing filter multiplied by the cosine, squared, of the angle between the polarizing axes of the two filters
speed of a light wave
λ = c/f
observed light frequency
f = f(1 ± v/c) : the observed frequency of light from a source is equal to the actual frequency of the light generated by the source, times the quantity 1 plus the relative speed along the axis between the source and the observer if they are moving toward each other, or 1 minus the relative speed if they are moving away from each other
doppler shift (λobs - λ) = △λ = ±v/cλ
(λobs - λ) = △λ = ±v/cλ : the difference between the observed wavelength of light and the actual wavelength of light generated by a source is equal to the actual wavelength of light generated by the source, time the relative speed of the source and observer, divided by the speed of light. this quantity is positive if they are moving away from each other or negative if they are moving toward each other
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