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Food Safety and Food Borne Illnesses
Terms in this set (57)
What is a foodborne illness?
A disease transmitted to people by food
What is a foodborne illness outbreak?
when two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food
What are the costs of foodborne illness to an establishment?
1. Loss of customers & sales 2. Negative media exposure
3. Lawsuits & legal fees 4. Increased insurance premiums
5. Loss of reputation 6. Lowered employee morale
7. Employee absentees 8. Staff retraining
What people fall into the category of high-risk populations?
1. Elderly people 2. Infants & young children
3. Pregnant women 4. People w/ cancer or HIV
something with the potential to cause harm
harmful things are present in food
microorganisms that cause illness
Time Temperature Abuse
allows food to stay too long at temperatures that are good for pathogen growth
transfers pathogens from one surface to another
What are microorganisms?
small living organisms that can be seen only through a microscope
What are four types of pathogens
1. Viruses 2. Bacterias
3. Parasites 4. Fungi
What are the 6 conditions needed for pathogens to grow? (FATTOM)
What does TCS stand for?
Time and Temperature Control for Safety
What is the temperature danger zone?
41 - 135 degrees farenheit
List 6 foods that are most likely to become unsafe
1. Milk and Meat product 2. Tofu
3. Tomatoes 4. Baked potatoes
5. Fish 6. Cooked rice
Describe how viruses are transferred and the best prevention
a) person to person, person to food, person to food-contact surfaces
b) stay home if sick, wash hands, avoid using hands to eat
Give two examples of a virus
Hepatitis A and Norovirus
What controls bacterial growth?
Keeping food out of the temperature danger zone
Give three examples of a foodborne bacteria
Salmonella, E. coli, Clostridium botulinum
Describe how parasites can show up in food
They live in a host organism and when they die they stay on them
What is fungi most commonly responsible for?
What reaction does mold have on food?
Spoils toxins and produces toxins to make people sick
What food is mold intentionally added to?
How do you know if food is spoiled by yeast?
Smell or taste of alcohol, slime, bubbles, white or pink discoloration
What are the three kinds of contamination
Biological, physical, chemical
What are some foods that have biological toxins?
Seafood, shellfish, mushroom
How can you prevent chemical contamination?
Store chemicals in a separate area away from food
Give 5 examples of physical contamination
1. Metal shavings 2. Glass
3. Fingernails or hair 4. Jewelry
5. Fruit pits
List 8 common food allergens
1. Dairy 2. Egg
3. Fish 4. Shellfish
5. Wheat 6. Soy
7. Peanuts 8. Tree nuts
What government agency prepare the Food Code?
FDA - Food and Drug Administration
How can food handlers contaminate food?
1. Having foodborne illness 2. Having wounds
3. Having contact with an ill person 4. Touching their hair
5. Touching anything that nay contaminate hands 6. Having jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea
7. Eating, drinking, smoking, etc. while preparing food
What are the four suggestions for personal cleanliness and work attire?
1. Foodhandlers should cover their hair
2. Wear clean clothes everyday
3. Remove aprons and leave them in kitchen
4. Remove jewelry
When should foodhandlers wash their hands?
1. Using restroom 2. Handling money
3. Sneezing 4. Taking out garbage
5. Handling raw meat 6. Clearing tables
What are the five steps to proper handwashing
1. Wet hands 2. Apply soap
3. Scrub for 20 seconds in warm water 4. Rinse off hands
5. Dry with paper towels and turn off water with paper towel
What is the rule for handling ready-to-eat foods?
Use gloves or tongs
When should you stay home from work? Why?
a) When you are jaundiced, vomiting, or having diarrhea
b) So you don't contaminate food
What are three ways to prevent cross contamination?
1. Make sure workstations are clean and sanitized
2. Don't mix raw meat and ready to eat food
3. Prepare raw meat at a different time than ready to eat
If food is held in the temperature danger zone, at what point should you throw it out?
If its held there for 2+ hours
can check temperatures 0-220 degrees, useful for both hot and cold foods, measures temp through metal stem
common in foodservice, measure temperature through probe and gives temperature digitally
measure temperatures of food and surfaces, don't need to touch a surface to measure, less chance of contamination
What are 4 signs that food has been temperature abused?
1. Abnormal color 2. Slimy, sticky, or dry texture
3. Soft flesh that leaves imprint 4. Abnormal odor
What is FIFO?
First in, first out method is to rotate refrigerated, frozen, or dry food during storage
What is the order that food should be stored top to bottom in the refrigerator?
1. Ready to eat food
3. Whole cuts of beef or pork
4. Ground meat and fish
5. Whole and ground poultry
What are 4 proper ways to thaw food?
1. Thaw in microwave
2. Thaw in cooking
3. Thaw in fridge
4. Thaw in running water
Correct cooking temperature for these foods
Poultry - 165
Ground meat - 155
Seafood & eggs - 145
Roast or Steaks - 145
Ready to eat foods- 135
Fruits & veggies - 135
What is the safe temperature to hold hot food?
135 or higher
What are temperature guidelines for cooling food?
Within first two hours - 70
In the next four hours - 41 or lower
What are three things you can do to cool food quickly and safely?
1. Reduce food into smaller sizes
2. Place small containers into a pot filled with ice water
3. Use ice paddles to stir food
What temperature do food need to be reheated to and in how many hours does that need to be accomplished?
165 degrees and before 2 hours
What are the 3 guidelines for serving food?
1. Hold dishes by bottom or edge
2. Carry glasses in a rack or tray
3. Hold flatware by handle
What is HACCP and what does it stand for
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and it is a food safety management system
List and explain the 7 steps of HACCP
1. Conduct a hazard analysis
2. Determine critical control points (CCPs)
3. Establish critical limits
4. Establish monitoring procedures
5. Identify corrective actions
6. Verify that the system works
7. Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
What is the difference between cleaning and sanitizing
Cleaning: removes food and other dirt from a surface
Sanitizing: reduces pathogens on a surface to safe levels
What are two methods of sanitizing?
1. Heat sanitizing: soak items in 171 degree water for 30 seconds or more
2. Chemical sanitizing: items soaked in a sanitizing solution
What are the 5 steps for using a three-compartment sink in dish washing?
1. Rinse,scrape, or soak items before washing them
2. Clean items in first sink with detergent solution
3. Rinse items in 2nd sink with water and remove traces of food
4. Sanitize items in 3rd sink, soak in hot water or sanitizing solution
5. Air dry items upside down so they'll drain
What are the three basic rules for an Integrated Pest Management Program?
1. Deny pests access to the operation
2. Deny pests food, water, and a hiding place
3. Work with a pest control operator to get rid of pests
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