27 terms

Chapter 2: The Fertile Crescent

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Fertile Crescent
Region of western Asia with fertile soil and a plentiful supply of water.
Mesopotamia
In Greek, this means the "Land between two rivers."
Tigris and Euphrates
The two rivers that run through the Fertile Crescent. They are the two land features that give Mesopotamia its name.
silt
Mixture of fertile soil and tiny rocks that can make land ideal for farming
drought
A long period with little or no rain.
levee
A structure or wall built to prevent a river from overflowing.
irrigation
Process in which water is artificially supplied to a specific area
erosion
The wearing away of rock by wind or water.
cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus and clay tablets
scribe
A professional writer or record keeper.
city-state
A city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
ziggurat
A Mesopotamian step pyramid with a temple at the top
polytheism
Belief in many gods
empire
A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
Sargon
King who created the first great empire in history
Gilgamesh
A great hero who set out on a long journey to discover how humans could live forever
Hammurabi
Leader of empire known as Babylonia, developed history's first set of written laws
code of law
A written set of laws that apply to everyone under a government.
Hammurabi's Code
The world's first code of law, where the expression "eye for an eye" originated from.
Assyrians
They conquered the Fertile Crescent in 600 B.C. and used fast horse-drawn carriages for war.
aqueduct
A structure that carries water over long distances.
Judaism
A monotheistic faith that believes God delivered a series of commandments to the Prophet Moses.
covenant
A sacred agreement between God and his people.
prophet
A person who speaks or interprets for God to other people.
Torah
A Hebrew word meaning "law" referring to the first five books of the Old Testament: part of the Hebrew Bible.
monotheism
Belief in one God.
Ten Commandments
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
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