When one is attending to complicated, high-load tasks that consume much of one's attentional capacity, selection tends to occur ........
When one is attending to simple, low-load tasks, more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions allowing for ........ selection.
Relatively shallow encoding that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus. E.g., if words are flashed on a screen, one would register how they were printed (capital, lowercase, and so on) or the length of the words (how many letters).
Emphasizes what a word sounds like. This type of encoding involves naming or saying (perhaps silently) the words.
The type of encoding that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent.
levels of processing theory
A theory that proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes.
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding. Semantic encoding is often enhanced by this process.
Can be used to enrich encoding, by creating visual images to represent the words to be remembered.
dual coding theory
Holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.
Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.
short term memory
A limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10 - 20 seconds.
Increasing the capacity of one's short-term memory by combining stimuli into larger, possibly higher-order units, called chunks.
A working memory component that is at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold on to a phone number.
A working memory component that permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images. E.g., picturing one's living loom and rearranging it's layout.
A working memory component which is not a storage system, controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed. E.g., dividing attention between having a conversation and watching T.V.
A working memory component that is temporary, limited-capacity store that allows the other various components of working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working memory and long-term memory.
long term memory
An unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event. E.g., Trying to memorize a professor's office, you may list objects that one would assume to find, which may or may not actually be there.
Consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
When people think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words. This occurs within a semantic network.
parallel distributed processing
This model assumes that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks. Also known as connectionist model.
parallel distributed processing
The model that asserts that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks.
As opposed to semantic networks, a piece of knowledge is represented by a particular pattern of activation across an entire network. Thus, the information lies in the strengths of the connections, which is why parallel distributed processing is also called: .....................
tip of the tongue phenomenon
The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
Trying to recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which the event occurred, thus aiding in memory retrieval.
To some extent, your memories are sketchy, that the past may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur. These are?
Occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information.
source monitoring error
Occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source.
Inadvertent plagiarism that occurs when people come up with an idea that they think is original when they were actually exposed to it earlier.
A subtype of source monitoring. Refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one's perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (one's thoughts and imaginations).
The length of time between the presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting.
A measure of retention that requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues.
A measure of retention that requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options. (Subjects have cues to work with, the answers are in-front of them). E.g,. multi-choice tests merely measure recognition.
A measure of retention that requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before.
Theory that proposes people forget information because of competition for other material.
Occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
Occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.
encoding specificity principle
Holds that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code. This principle provides on explanation for the inconsistent success retrieval efforts.
Transfer appropriate processing
Occurs when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention.
long term potentiation
A long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway.
long term depression
A durable decrease in synaptic excitability along a neural pathway. This process may shed light on how forgetting occurs at the level of the synapse.
The formation of new neurons may contribute to the sculpting of neural circuits that underlie memory.
Involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia.
A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory.
The area of the brain critical to the formation of memories for learned fears and other emotional memories.
declarative memory system
Handles factual information. Contains recollections of words, definitions, names, dates, faces, events, concepts and ideas.
nondeclarative memory system
Houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responses. It contains procedural memories of how to execute perceptual motor skills, such as riding a bike, typing, and typing one's shoes.
Which memory system appears to be more vulnerable to forgetting? Declarative memory system, or nondeclarative? (And stop and think why).
Memory system made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences. Using "time travel" to re-experience the past. Which includes things you have done, seen or heard and when.
Memory system (within declarative) containing general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned. E.g., My birthday is the 1st of September, the earth is round and Kelvin scored higher than Sean on the mid-term.
Involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information. E.g., trying to remember when the Red Hot Chili Peppers toured NZ last.
serial position effect
Occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
Phrases (or poems) in which the first letter of each word (or line) functions as a cue to help you recall information to be remembered. E.g., Remembering your musical notes: "Every good boy does fine".
Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.
method of loci
Involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations.
The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how the events actually turned out.
Retrieval from long-term memory is usually best when the information has been stored at which level of processing?