Psych 270 Exam 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Norm Violation
deviation from what's commonly accepted as "right" and "wrong"
conscientization
becoming aware of the broader social context
annunciation
engaging in proactive behaviors
Maladaptive behavior
inability to meet the challenges of life
Reification
process of regarding something abstract as a material or concrete thing (ex. depression)
Psychodynamic Perspective (definition)
behavior viewed as a function of early childhood experiences and intrapersonal processes
Biological Perspective (definition)
behavior viewed as a function of biological processes
Existential & Humanistic Perspectives (definition)
behavior viewed as a function of a person's free will and unique experience of the world, and his/her search for meaning and purpose
Cognitive Perspective (definition)
behavior viewed as a function of how thoughts influence us
Behavioral Perspective (definition)
behavior viewed as a function of environmental antecedents and consequences
Sociocultural Perspective (definition)
behavior viewed as a function of broader social factors and influences
Principles of Psychodynamic Perspective
focuses on unconscious intrapsychic forces
principles:
1. psychic determinism- mental processes are not spontaneous, but determined by the unconscious
2. true motives are unconscious- you are unaware
3. importance of early childhood experiences
Depth Hypothesis
-Part of Freudian Theory
-all mental activity occurs unconsciously
-disturbing materials (ex. traumatic experiences) are often repressed (pushed back --> subconscious)
Hermeneutics
importance of interpretation
-intrapsychic motives must be interpreted in order to be revealed/made known (e.g. Greek "Alethia- unconcealment)
Two levels of meaning of dreams
dreams are the road to the unconscious
1) manifest content - what is recalled (ex. flying)
2) latent content - what it means (ex. want to get away from reality)
The Structural Hypothesis
-Part of Freudian Theory
-Eros (life drive) vs. Thanatos (death drive)
-Id, Ego and Superego
Id, Ego, Superego
Id represents base instinctual drive, operates on the pleasure principle
Ego mediates between Id and Superego, operates on the reality principle
Superego represents social/moral ideals of parents/society
-intrapsychic conflict (ex. Id vs. Superego)--> neurosis
Defense Mechanisms
Repression, Projection, Displacement, Reaction Formation (expressing safer feeligns), Regression, Sublimation (socially acceptable behaviors)
Freud's 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
1. Oral stage
2. Anal stage
3. Phallic Stage
4. Latency Stage
5. Genital Stage
Oral Stage
focus is dependence
Anal Stage
focus is control
Phallic Stage
boys (~5 y.): Oedipus Complex (kill Dad & possess Mom), castration anxiety
Girls: Electra Complex (penis envy)
Latency Stage
relative stability, repression & sublimation of sexual feelings for parents
Genital Stage
focus on healthy heterosexual relations
Pros of Psychodynamic perspective
1. first systematic psychologial approach to understanding abnormal behavior
2. promotion of self-knowledge/insight
3. no one is immune to mental disturbance
4. influenced art, lit and other domains
5. contemporary extensions (ex. scar hypothesis)
Cons of Psychodynamic Perspective
1. little support for Freud's concepts (does not meet principle of falsification)
2. limited & culturally biased sample (12 case studies)
3. problems drawing universal inferences from case studies
4. YAVIS clients (young attractive verbal intelligent & successful people)
Phenomenological Approach (existential & humanistic perspectives)
focus is on understanding the client from their standpoint
-individuals are unique (idiographic approach) but behave according to same general rules (nomothetic approach)
Libido & Fixation (Freud)
Libido- Psychic energy
Fixation- process of investing too much energy on one particular activity
human potential
focus on being all that we can and want to be
Jean-Paul Sarte: "not to choose is itself a choice"
Carl Rogers & Self-Actualization (Humanistic perspective)
actualizing tendency- drive to preserve and enhance oneself
-unconditional positive regard: foundation of health, seeking the approval of others
-conditions of worth- excessive external standards can be the foundation of illness
-client-centered therapy, empathetic understanding
Abraham Maslow and Self-Actualization (Humanistic)
-hierarchy of needs pyramid: in order to become self-actualized, one needs to overcome basic needs
-peak experiences produce growth
Existentialism
philosophical stance that focuses on the existing individual person; instead of searching for truth in distant universal concepts, existentialism is concerned with the authentic concerns of concrete existing individuals as they face choices and decisions in daily life
Søren Kierkegaard
Existentialist
-importance of the "I"
-choice of 3 levels of existence (how to live the good life)
1. aesthetic- seize the day
2. ethical - be a good person
3. religious- self-sacrifice, give yourself to God, very individual -- NOT organized religion
Friedrich Nietzche
Existentialist
1. Eternal Recurrence- "what are you waiting for?"
2. Perspectivism- the idea that seeing things in many ways leads to objectivity
Jean-Paul Satre
Existentialist
1. Man is condemned to be free (but acknowledges "givens" or "facticity")
Givens- environment, language, previous choices
facticity- intractable conditions of human existence
2. "existence precedes essence": the waiter problem (objectifying people), humans create their own individual meaning/purpose
Albert Camus
Existentialist
myth of sisyphus- we all strive in this absurd world (the human spirit), identifying lives worth living in this meaningless world
Viktor Frankl
Existentialist
-man's search for meaning
-logotherapy: focus on helping clients find meaning and purpose in their lives
Pros of existential perspective
1. emphasizes the world of the clients
2. more optimistic than psychoanalysis (focuses on growth & devl)
3. respects individual differences
Cons of existential perspective
1. similar to psychoanalysis; unscientific, elitist
2. too focused on conscious, momentary experiences and adult dev'l
3. naive romanticism
Two key functions of dreams
-wish fulfillment
-release of unconscious tension