Disease of the arteries
Bolus of matter that circulates in the bloodstream, then lodges, obstructing blood flow
Dislodged thrombus (often DVT), air bubble, amniotic fluid, aggregate of fat, bacteria, cancer cells, or a foreign substance
Many arterial emboli are from the heart: Post myocardial infarction (MI), valve disease, endocarditis, dysrhythmias, heart failure
Any vascular disorder that narrows or occludes the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause.
Risk factors: Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Cigarette smoking,
Diabetes mellitus, Obesity/sedentary lifestyle, Defect in the production of precursor endothelial cells, and Precursor cells not available to repair injured endothelium
Nontraditional risk factors: Markers of inflammation and thrombosis (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, protein C, and plasminogen activator inhibitor), Infection
Sudden and extended obstruction of the myocardial blood supply
The MI individuals usually have marked elevations in the ST segments on electrocardiogram (ECG) and are categorized as having STEMI. (ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction)
Cellular injury ST elevation
Cellular death Abnormal or pathologic q wave
Myocardial remodeling: Secondary causes of decreased contractility, such as myocardial ischemia and increased myocardial workload, contribute to inflammatory, immune, and neurohumoral changes that mediate a process called ventricular remodeling.
Clinical Evaluation and Diagnosis: ECG changes, Cardiac enzymes, Troponins: most specific, See in 2-4 hours, remains elevated for 7-10 days, CK-MB: see in 2-4 hours, peaks in 24 hours, LDH, Hyperglycemia 72 hours post MI
-Aortic stenosis: The classic manifestations of aortic stenosis are angina, syncope, and heart failure.
-Mitral stenosis: refers to narrowing of the mitral valve orifice, resulting in impedance of filling of the left ventricle in diastole. It is most commonly caused by acute rheumatic fever and is two to three times more common in women than in men.
Aortic regurgitation: Acquired aortic regurgitation can be caused by rheumatic heart disease, bacterial endocarditis, syphilis, hypertension, connective tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis), appetite suppressing medications, trauma, or atherosclerosis.