Only $35.99/year

Pulmonary Circulation

Terms in this set (18)

Pulmonary Vessels.
The pulmonary artery extends only 5 centimeters beyond the apex of the right ventricle and then divides into right and left main branches that supply blood to the two respective lungs.
The pulmonary artery is thin, with a wall thickness one third that of the aorta. The pulmonary arterial branches are very short, and all the pulmonary arteries, even the smaller arteries and arterioles, have larger diameters than their counterpart systemic arteries. This, combined with the fact that the vessels are thin and distensible, gives the pulmonary arterial tree a large compliance, averaging almost 7 ml/mm Hg, which is similar to that of the entire systemic arterial tree. This large compliance allows the pulmonary arteries to accommodate the stroke volume output of the right ventricle. The pulmonary veins, like the pulmonary arteries, are also short. They immediately empty their effluent blood into the left atrium.
Bronchial Vessels.
Blood also flows to the lungs through small bronchial arteries that originate from the systemic circulation, amounting to about 1 to 2 percent of the total cardiac output. This bronchial arterial blood is oxygenated blood, in contrast to the partially deoxygenated blood in the pulmonary arteries. It supplies the supporting tissues of the lungs, including the connective tissue, septa, and large and small bronchi. After this bronchial and arterial blood has passed through the supporting tissues, it empties into the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium, rather than passing back to the right atrium. Therefore, the flow into the left atrium and the left ventricular output are about 1 to 2 percent greater than that of the right ventricular output.
Lymphatics
Lymph vessels are present in all the supportive tissues of the lung, beginning in the connective tissue spaces that surround the terminal bronchioles, coursing to the hilum of the lung, and then mainly into the right thoracic lymph duct. Particulate matter entering the alveoli is partly removed by way of these channels, and plasma protein leaking from the lung capillaries is also removed from the lung tissues, thereby helping to prevent pulmonary edema.
Pressures in the Pulmonary System.
The systolic pressure in the right ventricle of the normal human being averages about 25 mm Hg, and the diastolic pressure averages about 0 to 1 mm Hg, values that are only one-fifth those for the left ventricle.
During systole, the pressure in the pulmonary artery is essentially equal to the pressure in the right ventricle. However, after the pulmonary valve closes at the end of systole, the ventricular pressure falls precipitously, whereas the pulmonary arterial pressure falls more slowly as blood flows through the capillaries of the lungs.
The systolic pulmonary arterial pressure averages about 25 mm Hg in the normal human being, the diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure is about 8 mm Hg, and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure is 15 mm Hg.
The mean pulmonary capillary pressure, is about 7 mm Hg. The importance of this low capillary pressure is discussed in detail later.
The mean pressure in the left atrium and the major pulmonary veins averages about 2 mm Hg in the recumbent human being, varying from as low as 1 mm Hg to as high as 5 mm Hg.
Blood Volume of the Lungs.
The blood volume of the lungs is about 450 milliliters, about 9 percent of the total blood volume of the entire circulatory system. Approximately 70 milliliters of this pulmonary blood volume is in the pulmonary capillaries, and the remainder is divided about equally between the pulmonary arteries and the veins.
The Lungs Serve as a Blood Reservoir.
Under various physiological and pathological conditions, the quantity of blood in the lungs can vary from as little as one-half normal up to twice normal. For instance, when a person blows out air so hard that high pressure is built up in the lungs-such as when blowing a trumpet-as much as 250 milliliters of blood can be expelled from the pulmonary circulatory system into the systemic circulation. Also, loss of blood from the systemic circulation by hemorrhage can be partly compensated for by the automatic shift of blood from the lungs into the systemic vessels.
Cardiac Pathology May Shift Blood from the Systemic Circulation to the Pulmonary Circulation.
Failure of the left side of the heart or increased resistance to blood flow through the mitral valve as a result of mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation causes blood to dam up in the pulmonary circulation, sometimes increasing the pulmonary blood volume as much as 100 percent and causing large increases in the pulmonary vascular pressures. Because the volume of the systemic circulation is about nine times that of the pulmonary system, a shift of blood from one system to the other affects the pulmonary system greatly but usually has only mild systemic circulatory effects.
Blood Flow Through the Lungs and Its Distribution.
The blood flow through the lungs is essentially equal to the cardiac output. Therefore, the factors that control cardiac output-mainly peripheral factors also control pulmonary blood flow. Under most conditions, the pulmonary vessels act as passive, distensible tubes that enlarge with increasing pressure and narrow with decreasing pressure. For adequate aeration of the blood to occur, it is important for the blood to be distributed to those segments of the lungs where the alveoli are best oxygenated. This is achieved by the following mechanism.
Decreased Alveolar Oxygen Reduces Local Alveolar Blood Flow and Regulates Pulmonary Blood Flow Distribution.
When the concentration of oxygen in the air of the alveoli decreases below normal, especially when it falls below 70 percent of normal (below 73 mm Hg Po2), the adjacent blood vessels constrict, with the vascular resistance increasing more than fivefold at extremely low oxygen levels. This is opposite to the effect observed in systemic vessels, which dilate rather than constrict in response to low oxygen. It is believed that the low oxygen concentration causes some yet undiscovered vasoconstrictor substance to be released from the lung tissue; this substance promotes constriction of the small arteries and arterioles. It has been suggested that this vasoconstrictor might be secreted by the alveolar epithelial cells when they become hypoxic.
This effect of low oxygen on pulmonary vascular resistance has an important function: to distribute blood flow where it is most effective. That is, if some alveoli are poorly ventilated so that their oxygen concentration becomes low, the local vessels constrict. This causes the blood to flow through other areas of the lungs that are better aerated, thus providing an automatic control system for distributing blood flow to the pulmonary areas in proportion to their alveolar oxygen pressures.
The blood pressure in the foot of a standing person can be as much as 90 mm Hg greater than the pressure at the level of the heart. This is caused by hydrostatic pressure-that is, by the weight of the blood itself in the blood vessels. The same effect, but to a lesser degree, occurs in the lungs. In the normal, upright adult, the lowest point in the lungs is about 30 cm below the highest point. This represents a 23 mm Hg pressure difference, about 15 mm Hg of which is above the heart and 8 below. That is, the pulmonary arterial pressure in the uppermost portion of the lung of a standing person is about 15 mm Hg less than the pulmonary arterial pressure at the level of the heart, and the pressure in the lowest portion of the lungs is about 8 mm Hg greater. Such pressure differences have profound effects on blood flow through the different areas of the lungs. This is demonstrated by the lower curve in Fig. 1, which depicts blood flow per unit of lung tissue at different levels of the lung in the upright person. Note that in the standing position at rest, there is little flow in the top of the lung but about five times as much flow in the bottom. To help explain these differences, one often describes the lung as being divided into three zones, as shown in Fig. 2. In each zone, the patterns of blood flow are quite different.
Figure 1. Blood flow at different levels in the lung of an upright person at rest and during exercise. Note that when the person is at rest, the blood flow is very low at the top of the lungs; most of the flow is through the bottom of the lung.
The capillaries in the alveolar walls are distended by the blood pressure inside them, but simultaneously they are compressed by the alveolar air pressure on their outsides. Therefore, any time the lung alveolar air pressure becomes greater than the capillary blood pressure, the capillaries close and there is no blood flow. Under different normal and pathological lung conditions, one may find any one of three possible zones (patterns) of pulmonary blood flow, as follows:
Zone 1: No blood flow during all portions of the cardiac cycle because the local alveolar capillary pressure in that area of the lung never rises higher than the alveolar air pressure during any part of the cardiac cycle
Zone 2: Intermittent blood flow only during the peaks of pulmonary arterial pressure because the systolic pressure is then greater than the alveolar air pressure, but the diastolic pressure is less than the alveolar air pressure
Zone 3: Continuous blood flow because the alveolar capillary pressure remains greater than alveolar air pressure during the entire cardiac cycle
Figure 2. Mechanics of blood flow in the three blood flow zones of the lung: zone 1, no flow-alveolar air pressure (PALV) is greater than arterial pressure; zone 2, intermittent flow-systolic arterial pressure rises higher than alveolar air pressure, but diastolic arterial pressure falls below alveolar air pressure; and zone 3, continuous flow-arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure (Ppc) remain greater than alveolar air pressure at all times.
Normally, the lungs have only zones 2 and 3 blood flow-zone 2 (intermittent flow) in the apices and zone 3 (continuous flow) in all the lower areas. For example, when a person is in the upright position, the pulmonary arterial pressure at the lung apex is about 15 mm Hg less than the pressure at the level of the heart. Therefore, the apical systolic pressure is only 10 mm Hg (25 mm Hg at heart level minus 15 mm Hg hydrostatic pressure difference). This 10 mm Hg apical blood pressure is greater than the zero alveolar air pressure, so blood flows through the pulmonary apical capillaries during cardiac systole. Conversely, during diastole, the 8 mm Hg diastolic pressure at the level of the heart is not sufficient to push the blood up the 15 mm Hg hydrostatic pressure gradient required to cause diastolic capillary flow. Therefore, blood flow through the apical part of the lung is intermittent, with flow during systole but cessation of flow during diastole; this is called zone 2 blood flow. Zone 2 blood flow begins in the normal lungs about 10 cm above the midlevel of the heart and extends from there to the top of the lungs.
In the lower regions of the lungs, from about 10 cm above the level of the heart all the way to the bottom of the lungs, the pulmonary arterial pressure during both systole and diastole remains greater than the zero alveolar air pressure. Therefore, there is continuous flow through the alveolar capillaries, or zone 3 blood flow. Also, when a person is lying down, no part of the lung is more than a few centimeters above the level of the heart. In this case, blood flow in a normal person is entirely zone 3 blood flow, including the lung apices.
Pulmonary Capillary Dynamics.
Exchange of gases between the alveolar air and the pulmonary capillary blood is discussed in the next chapter. However, it is important for us to note here that the alveolar walls are lined with so many capillaries that, in most places, the capillaries almost touch one another side by side. Therefore, it is often said that the capillary blood flows in the alveolar walls as a "sheet of flow," rather than in individual capillaries.
Pulmonary Capillary Pressure.
No direct measurements of pulmonary capillary pressure have ever been made. However, "isogravimetric" measurement of pulmonary capillary pressure has given a value of 7 mm Hg. This is probably nearly correct because the mean left atrial pressure is about 2 mm Hg and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure is only 15 mm Hg, so the mean pulmonary capillary pressure must lie somewhere between these two values.
Length of Time Blood Stays in the Pulmonary Capillaries.
From histological study of the total cross-sectional area of all the pulmonary capillaries, it can be calculated that when the cardiac output is normal, blood passes through the pulmonary capillaries in about 0.8 second. When the cardiac output increases, this can shorten to as little as 0.3 second. The shortening would be much greater were it not for the fact that additional capillaries, which normally are collapsed, open up to accommodate the increased blood flow. Thus, in only a fraction of a second, blood passing through the alveolar capillaries becomes oxygenated and loses its excess carbon dioxide.