Sports Psychology chapter 4
Terms in this set (38)
A) Mix of pshysiological and psychological activity within someone
B) Refers to the intenstity dimensions of motivation at a specific moment
C) Intensity falls along a continuum from not at all arosed (i.e. comatose) to completely aroused (frenzied)
D) Highly aroused ppl mentally and physically activated and experience increased heart rates, respiration and sweating.
E) Not necessarily assocated with pleasant or unpleasants
F) Example; someone mb highly aroused via learning they have won 10 million dollars aans be equally aroused by learning of the death of a loved one.
A) Negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry and apprehension and association with activation or arousal of the body. Other types of anxiety include cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, trait anxiety and B) Cognitive anxiety. Anxiety also has perceived control
1) Ever changing mood compoentn of anxiety
2) Defined more formally as an emotional state characterized by subjective consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension accompanied by or connected the axtivation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system
a) Example: a players level of state anxiety would change from moment to moment during a basketball game. They may have a slightly elevated of state anxiety i.e. they may feel somewhat nervous and notice their heart pumping before tip off and a lower lvl when they settle into the game and on an extremely high lvl in closing mins of a tied game with 30 secs left in QT 4
Cognitive state anxiety V. Somatic state anxiety
1) Cognitive state anxiety Deals with the deg which one worries or has neg thoughts while somatic state anxiety deals with moment to moment changes in perceived physiological activation
2) Somatic state anxiety is not necessarily a change in ones physical activation but instead ones perce3ption of such a change
F) Perceived ctrl
1) Regulatory ocmpoent of state anxiety as seen today
2) This is in addition to experiencing neg thoughts and perceptions like cog state anxiety and physiological activation as seen with somatic state anxiety perceived ctrl is important component of state anxiety as well
1) Pt of the personality
2) An aquired behavioral tendency or disposition which influences behavior
3) Specifically trait anxiety predisposes ppl to perceive as threatening a wide range of situations that objectively may not actually be physically or psychologically dangerous
4) Ppl that respond to these circumstances with state anxiety react via lvls disproportionate in intensity and magnitude to objective danger.
a) Example: two field goal kickers which have = pysicaly skills mb placed under identical pressure (e.g. to kick he winning field goal at the end of the game) but have completely diff state anxiety reactions due to their personalities (i.e. their lvls of trait anxiety). Joe has lower trait anxiety and is more relaxed and doesn't see kicking the game winning field goal as to threatening. Therefore he doesn't experience more state anxiety than expected in such a situation. Jeff on the other hand has higher trait anxiety and consequently perceived the chance to kick (or in his view miss) the winning field goal as a major threat and experiences tremendous state anxiety more than he would have expected in such a situation.
5) Like state anxiety has different components
a) Example: the sport anxiety scale one of the more widely used measures in the field breaks trait anxiety into 3 portions as well as giving it a total score. These 3 components include somatic trait anxiety or the deg to which one typically perceives heightened physical symptoms like stomach tension,worry trait anxiety (deg wich one typically worries or experiences self-dubts) and concentration disruption or the degree to which one tends to experience coentration disruption during competition.
6) In short can be defined as a behavioral disposition to perceive as a threatening circumstance that may objectively not be dangerous and then respond with disproportionate state anxiety
7) Highly trait anxious ppl usually have more state anxiety in highly competitive evaluative situations than ppl with lower trait anxiety.
self-report measures of arousal and anxiety
1) How sport exdrvise psychologists measure arousal state anxiety and trait anxiety in various physiological ways and through psychological measures
2) To measure arousal changes are looked at in physiological signs: heart rate, respiration, skin conductance (rec on a voltage meter) and biochem (used to assess changes in substances like catecholamines)
3) Psychologists look to see how ppl rate their arousal lvl with a series of statements like my heart is pumping by using numerical scales measured from low to high
1) In measuring global measures as to how ppl do self-report measures
2) Measures this via how nervous ppl are
3) Multi-dimensional self report measures used in the same way but ppl rate how worried cognitive state anxiety and how physiologically activated ppl feel which also use self report scales going from low to high
4) Subscale scores for cognitive and somatic anxiety obtained via summation of scores for imtesm representing types of state anxiety
5) Psychologists use global and multidimensional self reports to measure trait anxiety as well and the formats for these measures are similar to those for state anxiety assessments but instead of rating the lvls of anciety they feel at the time ppl are sked how they tend to feel.
1) Substantial imbalance btw demand physical or and psychological and response capability under conds where failure to meet that demand has important consequences.
2) Process or sequence of events that will lead to a specific end
3) According to a simpe model proposed by mcgrath consists of 4 interrelated stages:
a) Environmental demand
b) Perception of demand
c) Stress response d) Behavioral consequences and
e) Implications for practice
The first stage of stress. Some type of demand placed on indivudals
- The demand mb physical or psychological like when a PE student has to executed newly learned volleyball skills in front of their class or when parent pressure young athletes to win a game/race
b) Perception of demand
- Second stage of the stress process cosnsiting of an individuals perception of the physical or psychological demand.
- Ppl that don't perceive demands in exacrly the same way
• Example: two 8th graders may view having to demonstrate newly learned volleyball skill in front of class slightly differently. Dafna may enjoy the attention of being inf ront of her class whereas issaha may feel threatened and may perceive an imbalance or perceive it only to a non-threatening defg
• Persons lvl of trait anciety greatly influences how ppl perceive the world while highly tait anxious ppl tend to perceive more situations (specigically evaluative and competitive ones) as threateningthan lower trait anxious ppl
- 3rd stage of the stress process where a persons physical and psychological response to a perception of the situation.
- If a persons perception of an imbalance btw demands and respondse capability cause them to feel threatened and increased state anxiety is created and brings with it increased worries (i.e. cognitive state anxiety), heightened physiological activation (somatic state anxiety) or both of these 2.
- Othe reactions like changes in increased muscle tensiongo along with increased state disorder.
behavioral consequences as a result of stress
Fourth stage of the stress process. = actual behavior of a person when stressed.
- Example: if a volleyball student perceives an imbalance btw capability and demands and feels increased state anxiety doesn't performance deteriorate or does increased state anxiety increase intensity of effort thereby improving performance?
- Final stage of the stress process feed back into the first (e.g. If a student becomes increasingly threatened performs not well in front of their class, the other kids may laugh and this neg soc evaluation becomes an additional demand on the child (stage) and the stress process becomes a continuing cycle.
implications for practice in how to handle stress
- If a corporate fitness specialist asked by their companies personnel director to help develop stress management programs for co employees. (e.g. acc to stage 1 they shoulddetermine what demands are placed on the emplyees like increased workloads), an analysis of stage kmay lead them to question who is experiencing or perceiving the most stress (ppl in certain divisions or with certain jobs), studying the reactions of emplyees are having to the increased stress, somaric state anxiety, attention concentration problems, stage 4 an analysis which would focus on subsequent behavior of emplyees feeling increased stress like reduced productivity.
- When the stress cycle is underwtood fitness directors can target their efforts to recue stress and may suggest physical activity or other means to manage stress like restructuring their work schedule
sources of stress for athletes
1) Stressors may include performance issue like worrying about performing up to capabilities, self doubts about talent, team selection and environmental issues like financial costs and time needed for training
2) Organizational issues like coaching leadership and commincaiton
3) Physical danger
4) Neg personal rapport
5) Behaviors of coaches
6) Relationships or traumatic experiences outside of sports like the death of a family member or neg interpersonal relationships
7) Competitive concerns
8) Pressure to perform
9) Lifestyle ndemands
10) Neg aspect of personal relationships
11) hired athletes that are elite experience psychological or fear shattered hope and dreams
12) Phys, medical or rehab related financial and career tress soruces
13) Missed opporutnities outside of the sport (e.g. inability to visit another country with 1 team)
sources of stress for coaches
1) Communicating with players
3) Pressure of having so many roles
4) Lack of ctrl ovr their athletes performance
sources of stress for referees
1) Controversial calls
2) Confrontarions with coaches
3) Difficulty working with partner officials
4) Physical abuse
situational sources of stress
A) Event importance
1) Usually more important an event the more stressful it is
a) game against the German School during the regular season different than a PVAC championship or sarachek game
b) Importance differs amongst people
1) Second major situational source of stress
2) The greater uncertainty the greater the stress.
3) Often nothing can be done for uncertainty
a) Example: when 2 evenly matched teams are scheduled to compete there is max uncertaint y but little can or should be done about it because the essence of sport is to put evenly matched athletes and teams together
b) At times however, teachers, coaches and sports med proffesionals create /unnecessary certain by not informing participants of things like how to avoid injury In learning high risk physical skills like gymnastics. Important for teachers, coaches and sports med professionals to be aware of this.
`personal sources of stress
1) Trait anxiety
a) Personality factor that predisposes ppl to view competition and and soc evaluation as more or less threatening
b) Highly trait anxious ppl perceive competition as more threatening and anxiety provoking than a lower trait anxious person
c) Research shows that ppl with high trait anxiety have cognitive biase's for picking out more threat related info in the same situation than their trait anxious peers
d) High trait anxiety connected to heightened state anxiety reactions in athletes
2) Self esteem
a) Connected to high state anxiety reactions in athletes
b) Related to perceptions of threat and corresponding changes in state anxiety
c) Athletes with low self esteem have less confidence and experience more state anxiety than athletes with high lvls of self esteem
d) Strategies to help enhance self confidence is an important means to recue the amount of state anxiety experienced by individuals
3) Social physique anxiety
a) Personality disposition defined as the deg which ppl become anxious when oher observe their physiques
b) Reflects ppls tendnency to become nervous or apprehensive when their body is evaluated
c) Pmjhg pl with high social physique anxiety more likely to experience more stress during fitness evaluartions and experience more neg thoughts about their bodies than those who don't have it
d) Found that a neg relationship exists btw soc physique anxiety and exercise behavior and perceived physical ability and that social physique anxiety relates to need satisfactio9n , phyiscla activity motivation and behavior
e) Those with high soc physique anxiety likely to avoid fitness settings or struggle with motivation when participating in sport or exercise bc they fear how others will evaluate their physiques.
f) Encouraging finding: physical activity intervention can decrease soc physique anxiety in participants and if aSW reduce ppls soc physique anxiety via exercise in less revealing clothing and increase their participation in physical activities
IX) connecting arousal and anxiety to performance
A) Most ppl right away recognize when there nerves make them feel vulnerable and out of ctrl
B) Question: how do physiological arousal and psychological arousal work together to help advance 1 person and detrimize another?
C) How are we able to in our own performance notice flunctuations in anxiety lvls and there effects?
D) Sports and exercise psychologists have been studying the relationship btw anxiety and performance for decades but haven't yet reached definitive conclusions but have illuminated aspects of the process that have many implications for helping ppl psych up and perform better as opposed to psyching out and performing poorly.
• 50 yrs ago researchers focused on drive theory and was later used in the 60s and 70s to expl social facilitation.
• Past ¾ century psychologists have found the inverted U hypothesis more convincing and more recently have proposed variations and newer hypotheses including concepts of zones of optimal functioning, multi dimensional anxiety theory, the cateastrophe phenomenon, reversal theory and the anxiety direction and intensity view
1) Earlier view of the relationship btw arousal and performance as direct and linear
2) When a persons arousal or state anxiety goes up so does their performance
a) E.g. the more pumped an athlete is the better they play. However, at the same time a lot of athletes that become overly aroused or anxious ended up performing worse
b) Little scholarly support in existence for this theory
social facilitation theory
a) Researcher called Zajonc observed pattern in a seemingly random way where ppl at times performed better in front of an audience and at other times performed worse.
b) Zajonc observed that while ppl perform tasks that they knew well or were simple had a pos effect with an audience present while when they performed less familiar or more complex tasks there performance suffered.
c) Acc to zajoncs social facilitation theory an audience creates arousal in the performer which hurts performance on difficult tasks that aren't yet learned but help performance on well learned tasks
d) Not necessary for an audience to be present for this theory to occur
e) Theory refers more broadly to effects of the presence of others on performance including coaction (2 ppl performing simultaneously)
f) Performance of a task simultaneously with others
g) Based on Zajoncs drive theory the presence of others increases arousal or drive which increases or brings about a performers dominant response
- When ppl perform well learned or simple skills (e.g. push ups) the dominant rresponse is correct (pos performance)and their increased arousal facilitates performance when ppl perform complex or unlearned skills (e.g. a novice golfer learning how to play golf) others presence results in an increase in arousal and lets their dominant response more often to be incorrect or lead to poorer performance therefore social facilitation theory predicts that an audience (coaction or presence of others) which inhibits performance on tasks that are complex or haven't been learned thoroughly and enhances performance on simple or well learned tasks.
- Implies a necessity to want to eliminate audiences and evaluate as much possible learning situations (e.g. if you were teaching a krav mega routine you wouldn't want to expose youngsters to an audience to soon)
- Critical to limit or minimize audience and coaction effects in learning environments to make them as arousal free as poss. However, when participants perform well learned or simple tasks you might want to encourage ppl to watch.
the inverted U hypothesis
a) Result of dissatisfaction with the drive theory
b) Used to expl relationship btw arousal states and performance
c) Holds that at low arousal lvls performance will be below par and exercisers or athletes will not be psyched
d) Holds that as arousal increases performance also increases up to an optimal pt where best performance results
e) More increases in arousal cause performance to decline and this view is represented by an inverted U which reflects high performance with an optimal lvl of arousal and lesser performance with either low or high arousal.
f) Most athletes and coaches accept gen notions of this hypothesis
g) Most ppl have experienced underarousal optimal arousal and overarousal
- Despite the acceptance of the hypothesis in gen and recent evidence supporting its predictions on relatively simple tasks which have come under criticism
h) Critics which rightly question the shape of the arousal curve ask if optimal arousal always occurd at the mdpt of the arousal continuum and question the nature of the arousal itself.
i) Essentially, inverted U theory has gone as far as it can for ppl but now it is necessary to give more explicit expl and therefore, sports psychologists have begun to explore other views in hope of being specifi in understanding the arousal performance relationship
individualized zones of optimal functioning
a) Alternative view to connecting arousal and anxiety to performance
b) Established by yuri hanim
c) Top athletes have this
d) In this zone athletes display their best performance while outside this zone they display poor performance
e) Differs from the inverted U hypothesis in 2 important ways:
- The optimal lvl of state anxiety doesn't always occur at the mdpt of the continuum but varied from person to person i.e. some athletes a zone of optimal functioning at the lower end of the continuum, some in midrange, and others at the upper end.
- The optimal lvl of state anxiety not a single pt but a bandwidth
f) Well supported in research lit
g) Expanded by hanim to go beyond anxiety to show how zones of optimal functioning use a variety of emotions and other psychobiosocial states like determination pleasantness and laziness
h) Concluded that for the best performance to ocuccur athletes need individualized optimal lvls not only of state anxiety but also for a variety of other emotions
i) Contends that there are positive (e.g. confidence and excitement) and neg (like fearfulness and nervousness) emotions that enhance performance and pos and neg emotions have dysfunctional influence on performance.
- Important development bc it shows a recognition that a specific emotion like anger can be positively associated with performance for one person but negatbiely associated with performance for another.
- Therefore; major coaching implcaiton of the IOF model is that coaches need to help each person athlete achieve the ideal recipe of pos and neg emotions necessary for a specific athlete to achieve their best performance.
multi-dimensional anxiety theory
1) While hanins theory doesn't address whethers pts of state anxiery like somatic and cognitive anxiety effect performance in the same way.
2) These state anxiety components tend to be thought to influence performance in different ways or that physiological (somatic state anxiety), arousal and worry (cognitive state anxiety) affect performance in diff ways. (e.g. when your heart races and your minds reiteration of neg predictions can affect you differently)
3) Predicts that cognitive state anxiety or worry is negatibely related to performance
4) That increases in cognitive anxiety tresult in decreases in ones performance
5) Theory predicts that somatic state anxiety (which is psychologically manifested) is connected to performance in an inverted U with increases in the anxiety facilitating performance up to a certain pt beyond which additional anxiety causes a decline in ones performance.
6) Although studies show that these 1 anxiety components differentially predict performance the precise predictions of multidimensional anziety theory haven't been consistently supported resulting in it having little support regarding its performance predictions and isn't the most useful regarding guiding practice.
1) According to this model performance is dependent on the complex interaction of arousal and cognitive anxiety
2) Predicts that physiological arousal is connected to performance in an inverted-U fashion, but only when athletes are not worried or have low cognitive state anxiety
3) If cognitive anxiety is high (i.e. athletes worry) the increase in arousal at some pt reaches a threshold just past the pt of optimal arousal lvl followed by a rapid decline in performance where the " catastrophe" occurs
4) Predicts that with low worry increases in arousal or somatic anxiety are related to performance in an inverted U manner.
5) With great worry increases in arousal improve performance to an optimal threshold and beyond this threshold additional arousal causes catastrophic rapid and dramatic declines in performance
6) In low worry situations arousal is related to performance in a traditional inverted U fashion
7) Overall performance not as elevated as in high worry situations
8) Under conditions of great worry high lvls of self confidence allow performers to tolerate higher lvls of arousal before they hit the pt where they experience catastrophic drops in performance
9) Under condtions of high cognitive anziety as physiological arousal increases, performance also increases until an optimal arousal lvl is reached and following this pt catastrophic decreases in performance occur and the performer drops down to a low lvl of performance
• Once an athlete is at this pt of the cruve necessary for them to greatly decrease their physiological arousal before being able to regain previous performance lvls
10) Post catastrophic episodes necessary for athletes too:
a) Have complete physical relaxation
b) Cognitively restructure via ctrl or elimination of worries and regain confidence and ctrl
c) Reactivate or arouse themselves in a ctrled manner to reach an optimal lvl of functioning.
11) Athletes absolute performance lvl tends to be higher under conditions of low cognitive anxiety which shows that worry doesn't necessarily hinder ones performance but in fact ppl tend to perform better with some worry provided there physiological arousal lvl doesn't get too high (i.e. a little bit of stresss raises an athletes efforts and narrows their attention giving them an edge over other performers)
12) Performance deteriorates only unfer combo of conditions of high worry and high physiological arousal
13) While there is some scientific support for this model it is difficult to test
14) Hard to date evidence for it is equivocal
15) Still possible to derive from this model important message that regarding practice for optimal performance an physiological arousal lvl not enough but it is also important to manage or ctrl cognitive state anxiety or worrying.
2) Contends that the way arousal affects performance dependent on a persons interpretation of their arousal lvl. (e.g. Jack may interpret it a pleasant excitement while Jan may interpret it as an unpleasant anxiety, Jan may see low arousal as relaxing while jack may see it as boring).
3) Athletes thought to make wuick shifts or reverslas in their interpeation of an arousal e.g. they may perceive arousal as pos at one moment and then reverse this interpretation to a neg one
4) Predicts that for the best performance necessary for athletes to need to interpet their arousal as pleasant excitement as opposed to unpleasant anxiety
5) Key contributions of the theory=two-fold:
a) Emphasis on ones interpretation of arousal not just the amount of arousal one feels is significant
b) Theory holds that performer can shift or reverse their pos or neg intepretations of arousal from moment to moment
6) Conclusion: offters an interesting alternative to previosu views of arousal performance relationship but few tests of t he theories predicitons have been made making firm conclusions not so possible
I) Anxiety direction and intensity
1) Many years: many researchers assumed anxiety only negatively affected performance.
2) Psychologist Graham Jones & colleagues: an individuals interpretation of anxiety symptoms important to understand an anxiety performance relationship
a) Ppl can views anxiety symptoms as pos and helpful to performance (facilitative) or as neg and harmful to performance (debilitative)
b) To fully understand the relationship btw anxiety and performance important to examine the intensity of someones anxiety (how much anxiety they feel) and the anxiety's direction or their interpretation of the anziety as facilitatice or delibitative to performance.
c) Contended based on the research that viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superiror performance while viewing it as debilitative leads to poor performance
3) Jones's model of how facilitative and debilitative anxiety occur
a) Stressor occurs in ones environment like playing in the PVAC championship game at AU and how much stress the ball player experiences depends on each person idniivdual factors like trait anxiety or self esteem.
b) Most important whether the resulting state anxiety is perceived as facilitative or debilitative dependent on how much ctrl athletes perceive if the athlete is in ctrl (e.g. they can cope with the anxiety and that winning/scoring a certain amount of 2 pt/3 pt shots possible) then facilitative anziety will result. But if they believe there is no way they can win cant cope with the pressure debilitative anxiety occurs.
perception of control
a) For an athlete relative to coping and goal attainment critical in determination of whether state anxiety is viewed as facilitative or debilitative.
d) Research found to support the association btws one anxiety lvl and performance (e.g. good balance beam performers have been associated with gymnasts interpreting cognitive anxiety as facilitative)
signifigance of arousal performance views
1) Arousal is a multifaceted phenomenon consisting of physiological activation and an athletes interpretation of that activity (e.g. state anxiety, confidence, facilitative anxiety)
a) Important to help performers find the optimal mix of emotions for best performance
b) Optimal mixs of arousal related emotions highly inidivudal and task specific
c) 2 athletes which participate in the same event may not have the same optimal emotional arousal lvl and a persons optimal emotional arousal lvl for performing balance beam routines would be very different from optimal arousal lvls for a max bench press in power weight lifting
2) Arousal and state anxiety don't necessarily have negative effects on performance
a) Effects can be pos and facilitative or neg and debilitative depending greatly on how performers interpret changes
b) Self-confidence and enhanced perceptions of ctrl critical in facilitation of heightened arousal as pos (psyching up) as opposed to neg (psyching out) \
3) Some optimal lvl of arousal and emotions lead to peak performance but optimal lvls of physiological activation and arousal related thoughts not necessarily simultaneously
4) Both catastrophe and reversal theories suggest that the interaction btw lvls of physiological activation and arousal related thoughts appear more important than absolute lvls of each.
a) Additionally some ppl perform better with relatively low optimal arousal and state anxiety while others perform better with higher lvls.
5) An optimal lvl of arousal is thought to be related to peak performance, but doubtful that this lvl occurs at mdpt of the arousal continuum
a) Excessive arousal likely doesn't cause slow gradual performance declination but rather difficult to reverse catastrophes
6) Psyching up strategies need to be used with caution bc its dififcult for athletes to recover post experiencing a catastrophe
7) Athletes need to well practice self talk imagery and goal etting skills to help them cope with anxiety as well as be able to perceive performance goals as attainable
why arousal influences performance
1) Helpful regarding arousal regulation both in oneself and others (e.g. if heightened arousal and state anxiety lead to increased muscle tension in Nicole a golfer, then progressive muscle relxation tehcniques become necessary to reduce state anxiety and improve performance). However, though ctrl strategies may work better for someone else who needs to ctrl their excessive cognitive state anxiety
2) 2 explanations for how increased arousal influences athletic performance:
a) Increased muscle tension, fatigue and coordination difficulties
- b) Attention concentration and visual search changes
attention concentration and visual search changes shows arousal influence on performance
Influenced by athletic performance via changes in attention, concentration and visual search patterns
• Increased arousal nsrrow perfomers attentional field
(e.g. joe a goalie on the mighty ducks needs to maintain a broad but optimal focus of attention as three opponents break into his end of the ice if he becomes preoccupied with knuckle puck and doesn't attend to the other players on the periphery knuckle puck could easily pass to one of his teammates on the wing for an easy score normally Joe can maintain his optimal attentional focus but if he is underaroused his attentional focus may be too broad taking in both task relevant (the opposing players) and irrelevant cues ( the fans)
• Arousal and state anxiety narrow a persons attentional field decreasing their environmental scanning cuasing them to shift their attention to appropriate task cues (e.g. football QB needs to shift from a broad external span when surveying the field for open receivers to a narrow external focus when delivering passes).
• Increae arousal and state anxiety can cause athletes to attend to inappropriate cues (e.g. most athletes perform well learned skills best when fully concentrated on the task and when they become unaware of their lvls of ocnentration while performing on auto pilot).
• Excessive cognitive state anxiety can cause performers to focus on inappropriate tasks cues y worrying about worrying and becoming overly self conscious affecting their optimal concentration.
• Three types of thoughts tied to cognitive interference for atheltes
ii) increased anxiety may cause performance worries, situation irrelevant thoughts and thoughts of esc.
iii) research shows that visual cues differenetiall yidentified and processed when performers are anxious (e.g. in a study of karate participants Williams and Elliot showed that increases anxiety influences attention via visual search pattern changes).
iv) the complex way anxiety influences sport performance reflected in processing efficiency theory which contends that increased anxiety can interfere with working memory resources but short term this doesn't negatbiely influence performance bc athletes make up for their deficitis caused by the anziety by increasing their effort.
- As anxiety increases however, the benefits of increased effort often outweighted by the reduced attentional capacity or processing inefficiency that goes with heightened anxiety. Therefore, anxiety may initially result in an increase in performance due to increases in effort but when anxiety gets high enough attentional deficits overcome any increases in effort.
How Increased muscle tension, fatigue and coordination difficulties
displays arousal influence over ones performance
Many that experience great stress report muscle sorness, aches and pains and athletes who experience high lvls of state anxiety may feel that they don't feel right or their body doesn't seem to follow directions. These feelings are normal bc increases in muscle can also interfere with coordination.
• Example: high trait anious and lower trait anxious college kids were watched as they threw tennis balls at a target. One might have expected that the higher trait anxious students experienced signifigantly more state anxiety than lower trait anxious participants. All the more so, electroencephalograms monitoring electrical activity in students. Elecroence[ja;pgra,s a;sp ,motpred e;ectorca; activity in studnets muscles which show them displaying an increase in state anxiety causing the more higlhly state anxious ppl to use more muscular energy than previously pre and post their throws.
• Increased arousal and state anxiety showed to increase muscle tension and fatigue and can interfere with coordination
five of the most important guidelines for integrating ones knwoeldge of arousal, stress and anxiety in ones professional practice:
identification of the optimal combo of arousal related emotions necessary for best performance
2) recognition of how personal and situational factors interact in influencing arousal, anxiety and performance
3) recognition of the signs of increased arousal and anxiety in sport and exercise participants
4) tailor coaching and instructional practices to individuals
5) development of confidence in performers to heklp them cope with increased stress and anxiety.
identification of optimal arousal related emotions
very effective way to help ppl achievew peak performance is via increase in the awareness of how arousal related emotions can result in peak performances and once this is accomplished teaching athletes various psychological strategies (e.g. usof imagery and development of pre-performance routines) can be helpful in arousal regulation.
2) arousal hould be thought of as an emotional temp and arousal reg skills as the thermostat where an athletes goals are to identify the optimal emoitnal temp for their best performance and to allow them to learn how to set their themostat to this temp either by raising it up (pumping them up) or lowering it (chilling them out)
recognition of the interaction btw personal and situational factors
stress and anxiety can be best be understood and predicted via consideration of the interaction of personal and situational factors (e.g. many ppl mistakenly assume that low trait anxious athletes will always be the best performer bc they achieve an optimal lvls of state anxiety and arousal necessary for competiton and contrastingly the assumption is high trait anxious athletes more likely to choke but this is not the case.
a) example: where the importance placed on performance non excessive and there is some certainty about the outcome one may expect a highly trait anxious swimmer to experience some lvl of elevated arousal and state anxiety bc they are predisposed to perceive moxt competitive situations as slightly threatening. Seems likely that they will move close to their optimal lvl of arousal and state anxiety while contrastingly competitors with low trait anxiety may not perceive this situation as so important bc they don't feel threatened therefore there lvl of arousal and state anxiety remain low and they have trouble achieving optimal performance.
b) in higher pressure situations where meets have considerable performance and an uncertain outcomeswimmers react differently.
2) those with higher trait anxiety perceive situations as more important and respond with very high lvls of arousal and state: they overshoot their optimal lvl of state anxiety and arousal while low trait anxious athletes experience increased state anxiety but tend to perceive competition and social evaluation as less threatening and their state anxiety and arousal will likely be in an optimal range.
3) interaction of personal factors like self esteem, social physique anxiety and trait anxiety and situational factors (like event importance and uncertainty) tend to be better predictors of arousal, state anxiety and performance than either set of these factors alone.
recognizing the signs for arousal and state anxiety
) interactional approach has several implications for helping exercise and sport participants manage stress.
a) most important implication is the need to identify ppl that are experiencing heightened stress anxiety which isn't easy (e.g. coaches have been found to be inaccurate predictors of their athletes anxiety lvl and according to hanson and goudl only ¼ college cross country coaches accurately read their athletes state and trait anxiety lvls.
2) to accurately detect indiivudals anxiety lvl necessary to understand the various signs and symptos of increases stress and anxiety.
3) easier to detect person anxiety lvl if one knows the following signs and symptoms of increased stress and anxiety:
a) cold clammy hands
b) need to frequently urinate
c) profusive sqeatening
d) neg self talk
e) dazed look in ones eyes
f) increased muscle tension
g) butterflies in the stomach
h) feeling ill
j) dry mouth
k) constant feeling of sickness
l) sleeping trouble
m) trouble concentrating
consistently better performance in noncompetitive situations
n) although no set no. or pattern characterizes high lvl of strss ppl who experience high lvls of state anziety tend to exhibit several of the listed signs
o) crucial to notice chanes in these variables btw high and low stress environments ( e.g. when a normally pos athlete goes neg) and the best way to do this is ask the athlete themselves.
p) empathy important for coaches in their relationships with their players
tailor coaching strategies to individuals
arousal and state anxiety need to sometimes be reduced, other times maintained and other times facilitated.
F) important to develop performers confidence
1) more confident ppl are less likely they are to have state anxiety
2) when anxiety is present these ppl tend to have more facilitative and less debilitative anxiety.