Sports Psychology chapter 4

Terms in this set (38)

1) Pt of the personality
2) An aquired behavioral tendency or disposition which influences behavior
3) Specifically trait anxiety predisposes ppl to perceive as threatening a wide range of situations that objectively may not actually be physically or psychologically dangerous
4) Ppl that respond to these circumstances with state anxiety react via lvls disproportionate in intensity and magnitude to objective danger.
a) Example: two field goal kickers which have = pysicaly skills mb placed under identical pressure (e.g. to kick he winning field goal at the end of the game) but have completely diff state anxiety reactions due to their personalities (i.e. their lvls of trait anxiety). Joe has lower trait anxiety and is more relaxed and doesn't see kicking the game winning field goal as to threatening. Therefore he doesn't experience more state anxiety than expected in such a situation. Jeff on the other hand has higher trait anxiety and consequently perceived the chance to kick (or in his view miss) the winning field goal as a major threat and experiences tremendous state anxiety more than he would have expected in such a situation.
5) Like state anxiety has different components
a) Example: the sport anxiety scale one of the more widely used measures in the field breaks trait anxiety into 3 portions as well as giving it a total score. These 3 components include somatic trait anxiety or the deg to which one typically perceives heightened physical symptoms like stomach tension,worry trait anxiety (deg wich one typically worries or experiences self-dubts) and concentration disruption or the degree to which one tends to experience coentration disruption during competition.
6) In short can be defined as a behavioral disposition to perceive as a threatening circumstance that may objectively not be dangerous and then respond with disproportionate state anxiety
7) Highly trait anxious ppl usually have more state anxiety in highly competitive evaluative situations than ppl with lower trait anxiety.
1) Trait anxiety
a) Personality factor that predisposes ppl to view competition and and soc evaluation as more or less threatening
b) Highly trait anxious ppl perceive competition as more threatening and anxiety provoking than a lower trait anxious person
c) Research shows that ppl with high trait anxiety have cognitive biase's for picking out more threat related info in the same situation than their trait anxious peers
d) High trait anxiety connected to heightened state anxiety reactions in athletes
2) Self esteem
a) Connected to high state anxiety reactions in athletes
b) Related to perceptions of threat and corresponding changes in state anxiety
c) Athletes with low self esteem have less confidence and experience more state anxiety than athletes with high lvls of self esteem
d) Strategies to help enhance self confidence is an important means to recue the amount of state anxiety experienced by individuals
3) Social physique anxiety
a) Personality disposition defined as the deg which ppl become anxious when oher observe their physiques
b) Reflects ppls tendnency to become nervous or apprehensive when their body is evaluated
c) Pmjhg pl with high social physique anxiety more likely to experience more stress during fitness evaluartions and experience more neg thoughts about their bodies than those who don't have it
d) Found that a neg relationship exists btw soc physique anxiety and exercise behavior and perceived physical ability and that social physique anxiety relates to need satisfactio9n , phyiscla activity motivation and behavior
e) Those with high soc physique anxiety likely to avoid fitness settings or struggle with motivation when participating in sport or exercise bc they fear how others will evaluate their physiques.
f) Encouraging finding: physical activity intervention can decrease soc physique anxiety in participants and if aSW reduce ppls soc physique anxiety via exercise in less revealing clothing and increase their participation in physical activities
IX) connecting arousal and anxiety to performance
A) Most ppl right away recognize when there nerves make them feel vulnerable and out of ctrl
B) Question: how do physiological arousal and psychological arousal work together to help advance 1 person and detrimize another?
C) How are we able to in our own performance notice flunctuations in anxiety lvls and there effects?
D) Sports and exercise psychologists have been studying the relationship btw anxiety and performance for decades but haven't yet reached definitive conclusions but have illuminated aspects of the process that have many implications for helping ppl psych up and perform better as opposed to psyching out and performing poorly.
• 50 yrs ago researchers focused on drive theory and was later used in the 60s and 70s to expl social facilitation.
• Past ¾ century psychologists have found the inverted U hypothesis more convincing and more recently have proposed variations and newer hypotheses including concepts of zones of optimal functioning, multi dimensional anxiety theory, the cateastrophe phenomenon, reversal theory and the anxiety direction and intensity view
a) Researcher called Zajonc observed pattern in a seemingly random way where ppl at times performed better in front of an audience and at other times performed worse.
b) Zajonc observed that while ppl perform tasks that they knew well or were simple had a pos effect with an audience present while when they performed less familiar or more complex tasks there performance suffered.
c) Acc to zajoncs social facilitation theory an audience creates arousal in the performer which hurts performance on difficult tasks that aren't yet learned but help performance on well learned tasks
d) Not necessary for an audience to be present for this theory to occur
e) Theory refers more broadly to effects of the presence of others on performance including coaction (2 ppl performing simultaneously)
f) Performance of a task simultaneously with others
g) Based on Zajoncs drive theory the presence of others increases arousal or drive which increases or brings about a performers dominant response
- When ppl perform well learned or simple skills (e.g. push ups) the dominant rresponse is correct (pos performance)and their increased arousal facilitates performance when ppl perform complex or unlearned skills (e.g. a novice golfer learning how to play golf) others presence results in an increase in arousal and lets their dominant response more often to be incorrect or lead to poorer performance therefore social facilitation theory predicts that an audience (coaction or presence of others) which inhibits performance on tasks that are complex or haven't been learned thoroughly and enhances performance on simple or well learned tasks.
- Implies a necessity to want to eliminate audiences and evaluate as much possible learning situations (e.g. if you were teaching a krav mega routine you wouldn't want to expose youngsters to an audience to soon)
- Critical to limit or minimize audience and coaction effects in learning environments to make them as arousal free as poss. However, when participants perform well learned or simple tasks you might want to encourage ppl to watch.
a) Alternative view to connecting arousal and anxiety to performance
b) Established by yuri hanim
c) Top athletes have this
d) In this zone athletes display their best performance while outside this zone they display poor performance
e) Differs from the inverted U hypothesis in 2 important ways:
- The optimal lvl of state anxiety doesn't always occur at the mdpt of the continuum but varied from person to person i.e. some athletes a zone of optimal functioning at the lower end of the continuum, some in midrange, and others at the upper end.
- The optimal lvl of state anxiety not a single pt but a bandwidth
f) Well supported in research lit
g) Expanded by hanim to go beyond anxiety to show how zones of optimal functioning use a variety of emotions and other psychobiosocial states like determination pleasantness and laziness
h) Concluded that for the best performance to ocuccur athletes need individualized optimal lvls not only of state anxiety but also for a variety of other emotions
i) Contends that there are positive (e.g. confidence and excitement) and neg (like fearfulness and nervousness) emotions that enhance performance and pos and neg emotions have dysfunctional influence on performance.
- Important development bc it shows a recognition that a specific emotion like anger can be positively associated with performance for one person but negatbiely associated with performance for another.
- Therefore; major coaching implcaiton of the IOF model is that coaches need to help each person athlete achieve the ideal recipe of pos and neg emotions necessary for a specific athlete to achieve their best performance.
1) According to this model performance is dependent on the complex interaction of arousal and cognitive anxiety
2) Predicts that physiological arousal is connected to performance in an inverted-U fashion, but only when athletes are not worried or have low cognitive state anxiety
3) If cognitive anxiety is high (i.e. athletes worry) the increase in arousal at some pt reaches a threshold just past the pt of optimal arousal lvl followed by a rapid decline in performance where the " catastrophe" occurs
4) Predicts that with low worry increases in arousal or somatic anxiety are related to performance in an inverted U manner.
5) With great worry increases in arousal improve performance to an optimal threshold and beyond this threshold additional arousal causes catastrophic rapid and dramatic declines in performance
6) In low worry situations arousal is related to performance in a traditional inverted U fashion
7) Overall performance not as elevated as in high worry situations
8) Under conditions of great worry high lvls of self confidence allow performers to tolerate higher lvls of arousal before they hit the pt where they experience catastrophic drops in performance
9) Under condtions of high cognitive anziety as physiological arousal increases, performance also increases until an optimal arousal lvl is reached and following this pt catastrophic decreases in performance occur and the performer drops down to a low lvl of performance
• Once an athlete is at this pt of the cruve necessary for them to greatly decrease their physiological arousal before being able to regain previous performance lvls
10) Post catastrophic episodes necessary for athletes too:
a) Have complete physical relaxation
b) Cognitively restructure via ctrl or elimination of worries and regain confidence and ctrl
c) Reactivate or arouse themselves in a ctrled manner to reach an optimal lvl of functioning.
11) Athletes absolute performance lvl tends to be higher under conditions of low cognitive anxiety which shows that worry doesn't necessarily hinder ones performance but in fact ppl tend to perform better with some worry provided there physiological arousal lvl doesn't get too high (i.e. a little bit of stresss raises an athletes efforts and narrows their attention giving them an edge over other performers)
12) Performance deteriorates only unfer combo of conditions of high worry and high physiological arousal
13) While there is some scientific support for this model it is difficult to test
14) Hard to date evidence for it is equivocal
15) Still possible to derive from this model important message that regarding practice for optimal performance an physiological arousal lvl not enough but it is also important to manage or ctrl cognitive state anxiety or worrying.
1) Arousal is a multifaceted phenomenon consisting of physiological activation and an athletes interpretation of that activity (e.g. state anxiety, confidence, facilitative anxiety)
a) Important to help performers find the optimal mix of emotions for best performance
b) Optimal mixs of arousal related emotions highly inidivudal and task specific
c) 2 athletes which participate in the same event may not have the same optimal emotional arousal lvl and a persons optimal emotional arousal lvl for performing balance beam routines would be very different from optimal arousal lvls for a max bench press in power weight lifting
2) Arousal and state anxiety don't necessarily have negative effects on performance
a) Effects can be pos and facilitative or neg and debilitative depending greatly on how performers interpret changes
b) Self-confidence and enhanced perceptions of ctrl critical in facilitation of heightened arousal as pos (psyching up) as opposed to neg (psyching out) \
3) Some optimal lvl of arousal and emotions lead to peak performance but optimal lvls of physiological activation and arousal related thoughts not necessarily simultaneously
4) Both catastrophe and reversal theories suggest that the interaction btw lvls of physiological activation and arousal related thoughts appear more important than absolute lvls of each.
a) Additionally some ppl perform better with relatively low optimal arousal and state anxiety while others perform better with higher lvls.
5) An optimal lvl of arousal is thought to be related to peak performance, but doubtful that this lvl occurs at mdpt of the arousal continuum
a) Excessive arousal likely doesn't cause slow gradual performance declination but rather difficult to reverse catastrophes
6) Psyching up strategies need to be used with caution bc its dififcult for athletes to recover post experiencing a catastrophe
7) Athletes need to well practice self talk imagery and goal etting skills to help them cope with anxiety as well as be able to perceive performance goals as attainable
Influenced by athletic performance via changes in attention, concentration and visual search patterns
• Increased arousal nsrrow perfomers attentional field
(e.g. joe a goalie on the mighty ducks needs to maintain a broad but optimal focus of attention as three opponents break into his end of the ice if he becomes preoccupied with knuckle puck and doesn't attend to the other players on the periphery knuckle puck could easily pass to one of his teammates on the wing for an easy score normally Joe can maintain his optimal attentional focus but if he is underaroused his attentional focus may be too broad taking in both task relevant (the opposing players) and irrelevant cues ( the fans)

• Arousal and state anxiety narrow a persons attentional field decreasing their environmental scanning cuasing them to shift their attention to appropriate task cues (e.g. football QB needs to shift from a broad external span when surveying the field for open receivers to a narrow external focus when delivering passes).
• Increae arousal and state anxiety can cause athletes to attend to inappropriate cues (e.g. most athletes perform well learned skills best when fully concentrated on the task and when they become unaware of their lvls of ocnentration while performing on auto pilot).
• Excessive cognitive state anxiety can cause performers to focus on inappropriate tasks cues y worrying about worrying and becoming overly self conscious affecting their optimal concentration.
• Three types of thoughts tied to cognitive interference for atheltes
ii) increased anxiety may cause performance worries, situation irrelevant thoughts and thoughts of esc.
iii) research shows that visual cues differenetiall yidentified and processed when performers are anxious (e.g. in a study of karate participants Williams and Elliot showed that increases anxiety influences attention via visual search pattern changes).
iv) the complex way anxiety influences sport performance reflected in processing efficiency theory which contends that increased anxiety can interfere with working memory resources but short term this doesn't negatbiely influence performance bc athletes make up for their deficitis caused by the anziety by increasing their effort.
- As anxiety increases however, the benefits of increased effort often outweighted by the reduced attentional capacity or processing inefficiency that goes with heightened anxiety. Therefore, anxiety may initially result in an increase in performance due to increases in effort but when anxiety gets high enough attentional deficits overcome any increases in effort.
stress and anxiety can be best be understood and predicted via consideration of the interaction of personal and situational factors (e.g. many ppl mistakenly assume that low trait anxious athletes will always be the best performer bc they achieve an optimal lvls of state anxiety and arousal necessary for competiton and contrastingly the assumption is high trait anxious athletes more likely to choke but this is not the case.
a) example: where the importance placed on performance non excessive and there is some certainty about the outcome one may expect a highly trait anxious swimmer to experience some lvl of elevated arousal and state anxiety bc they are predisposed to perceive moxt competitive situations as slightly threatening. Seems likely that they will move close to their optimal lvl of arousal and state anxiety while contrastingly competitors with low trait anxiety may not perceive this situation as so important bc they don't feel threatened therefore there lvl of arousal and state anxiety remain low and they have trouble achieving optimal performance.
b) in higher pressure situations where meets have considerable performance and an uncertain outcomeswimmers react differently.
2) those with higher trait anxiety perceive situations as more important and respond with very high lvls of arousal and state: they overshoot their optimal lvl of state anxiety and arousal while low trait anxious athletes experience increased state anxiety but tend to perceive competition and social evaluation as less threatening and their state anxiety and arousal will likely be in an optimal range.
3) interaction of personal factors like self esteem, social physique anxiety and trait anxiety and situational factors (like event importance and uncertainty) tend to be better predictors of arousal, state anxiety and performance than either set of these factors alone.