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restorative justice is especially concerned with repairing the harm to the...

relationships between offenders and victims

if you punish an individual seeking to change that person's behavior


one of the rationales for diversion is that the stigma of being formally arrested, tried, and convicted can actually encourage more criminal behavior


sanctions that move offenders from higher levels of control to lower ones for the final phase of their sentences

trap/side door programs

a sentencing goal that involves retaliation against a criminal perpetrartor


which of the following is typical of a probation condition

monetary penalties
drug testing
remaining or becoming employeed

the principle, advocated by Bentham, that the highest objective of public policy is the greatest happiness for the largest number of people is:


the repetition of criminal behavior, generally defined as rearrest, is called


retribution really means "paying back" the offender for what he has done


prisons, or institutions in which large numbers of convicted offenders spend time as punishment for crimes, are over a thousand years old


a sentence in which a judge specifies a mazimum length and a minimum length is called

indeterminate sentencing

the public accounts, contract, convict lease, and state use systems are all part of

industrial era of prisons

to deal with the growing prison population many countries used floating prison ships called


the term "gaol" means

jail/ prison

if a prosecutor drops charges after filing them


a jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dorms that line corridors arranged like spokes

first gen. jail


beating/ whipping

juveniles can never be held in an adult jail


which sentencing option is the most expensive?

bootcamp, incarceration

the process of changing criminal lifestyles "correcting" behavior through treatment, education, or training


the type of crime characterized by all of parties willingly participating

victimless crime

the most honorable form of punishment for men was


external classification determines

an inmates security level

a system of prison industry in with the prison advertised for bids for the employment of prisoners whose labor was sold to the highest bidder

contract system

the "evidence" that evidence based corrections is based on highly controversial


system called for solitary confinement at labor, with instruction in labor, morals, and religion

Pennsylvania system

discretionary parole board release was abolished in a number of states and the fed gov. the pendulum swung from rehab to


cell phone confiscation from prisoners is one of the newer challenges faced by correctional staff members


prison populations have increased in the US because of

increased prosecutions and convictions relating to drugs

cultural restrictions on behavior that forbid serious violations of a groups values, such as murder, rape, and robbery


probation is less expensive than incarceration, more humanitarian, and at least as effective as incarceration in reducing future criminal activity


instant death was usually reserved for member of the poorer classes and not the nobility


what percentage of women in jail have children under 18yrs


payments made by a criminal offender to their victim as compensation for the harm caused by the offense


Lex talionis

eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth

the halting or suspension, before conviction, of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditional upon some form of counter-performance by the defendant


a punishment philosophy that holds that criminal offenders are morally blameworthy and are therefore deserving of punishment

just deserts

rate of incarceration for women is

67 per 100,000

the religious order that pushed for prison reform of the Walnut Street Jail


the conditional release of a convicted offender into the community under the supervision of a probation officer


the auburn system is also known as

congregate system

a crime punishable by confinement in a local jail for a year or less


sentences that are served together

concurrent sentence

the use of imprisonment or other means to reduce an offender's capability to commit future crimes is called incapacitation


diversion in which charges are dismissed if the defendant satisfactorily completes treatment, counseling, or other programs ordered by the justice system

conditional diversion

for more than 200 years, England practiced a form of criminal exile known as


the process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case is called


the formal termination of an offender's conditional freedom is called


the first jail in america was

Walnut Street Jail

after the american revolution, england sent its prisoners to


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