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Bio Exam #2

Gerald Farr Texas State University
STUDY
PLAY
The fluid behavior of the plasma membrane results primarily from the...
flexibility of the lipid components
Nucleic acids indirectly
direct protein synthesis
in newly forming plant cells the wall that surrounds the plasma membrane is referred to as the
primary cell wall
vesicles from the ER most likely are on their way to the
Golgi body
Organelles involved in the synthesis of steroids and other lipids in gland cells are
smooth ER
Resolution by the best light microscope is ultimately limited by
the wavelength of light
Not all substances can cross the cell membrane, for this reason the cell membrane is said to be
selectively permeable
Maintains the three dimensional structure of animal cells
cytoskeleton
What cellular process involves an inward sinking of a small patch of membrane to form a cytoplasmic
endocytosis
The endoplasmic reticulum
serves as the internal transportation system of a cell
water constantly moves into the freshwater Paramecium because the cell is ______ relative to its environment
hypertonic
The cytoskeleton
extends between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Four of the five choices listed below are bound by membranes.
chromoplast, vacuole, mitochondrion, lysosome
ribosomes do not have membranes
Which of the following is true of the transport proteins in the plasma membrane?
they span the lipid bilayer
A major difference between plant cell mitosis and animal cell mitosis is the absence in plant cells of
centrioles
The fluid filled sac that may store food, ions, or water in plant cells and is involved in fluid pressure is
central vacuole
The capacity of a cell to exhibit movement or mobility is generally attributed to which cellular component?
microtubules
Two adjacent plant cells are held together by a cementing layer termed the
middle lamella
Which type of transport across membranes will proceed naturally without energy input?
Osmosis
Inside the nuclear envelope the DNA in the form of fine 'spread out' strands is called
chromatin
Cells with high energy requirements, such as muscle ten to have many
mitochondria
What is a role of proteins found in eukaryotic plasma membranes
regulating flow of materials through the membrane
the ______ acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell
lipid bilayer
Which cellular process involves an inward sinking of a small patch of membrane to form a cytoplasmic vesicle?
endocytosis
The system of canals, tubes, and sacs that transports molecules inside the cytoplasm is the
endoplasmic reticula
In the plasma membrane, the tails of the phospholipids
form a barrier to polar substances
Plasmodesmata are cell junctions that are similar functions to
gap junctions in animal cells
Organelles _______
are discrete, recognizable bodies in cytoplasm, are membrane bound compartments, are typical eukaryotic cells, separate chemical reactions in time and space
The energy for flagellar movement
appears to come from ATP
The largest cytoskeletal element is the
microtubule
Mitochondria typically arise by the division of existing
mitochondria
Glycoproteins differ from other membrane proteins in that they
have chains of a polysaccharide associated with them and they aid the immune system
what is the correct sequence of polypeptide transport in the secretory pathway
ribosome, ER, Golgi Bodies, Plasma Membrane
Which of the following processes does not involve formation of a vesicle
osmosis
which of the following is not required for cell function
transport mechanisms to bring substances in from outside of the cell
of the objects listed, which is the smallest that you can see without the aid of a microscope?
frog embryo
Hooke was the first to observe cells under a simple microscope in the 1600s because he was looking at
plant cells in which the thick cell wall was clearly visible.
The phospholipids and cholesterol that are used to form membranes are synthesized in the
smooth ER
The golgi apparatus packages materials into ______ for transport or export?
vesicles
What is the fate of defective or malfunctioning organelles in cells?
they accumulate in the cytoplasm eventually resulting in cell death
The RNA in the nucleus leaves through
nuclear pores
Which of the following would not be found in one of your liver cells?
a central vacuole
which organelle resembles a bacterium in it's size and biochemistry?
a mitochondrian
movements of individual water molecules through a cell membrane from a higher concentration toward a lower concentration is called
osmosis
ATP is
an energy poor compound
The organelle that pinches off portions of its membrane to form a compartment used for storage or transport is the
golgi body
Prokaryotes
are either bacteria or archeans, may have cell walls, are unicellular, have nucleoid regions
which of the following are not found in a prokaryotic cell
membrane bound organelles
the components of membranes that account for most of a cells functions are
phospholipids
four of the five items listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells
lysosome
a hypothetical microbullet shot through a phospholipid bilayer would pass the components in which order?
head, tail, tail, head
in an attempt to visualize the fluid mosaic model of a membrane we could describe the ____ as floating in a sea of ____
proteins, lipid
which of the following affects the rate of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane?
I. Concentration Gradient
II Temperature
III molecular size
all three
four of the five choices listed below are characteristics of plasm membrane the exception is
inert and impermeable
in a typical cell the substance found in the highest percentage is
water
the term cell comes from this scientis's work and his description of the compartmenetaiton he saw this slices of corks
hooke
a gap junction
connects the cytoplasm of two cells
most membrane functions are carried out by
proteins
plasma membranes incorporate
receptor proteins, transport proteins, recognition proteins, adhesion proteins
sodium ions cross a membrane through transport proteins that receive an eneregy boost this is an example
of active transport
the net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is descrived by which of the following
diffusion
in general the net movement of molecules in a fluid is a response to the
concentration gradient
a phospholiid has a phosphate containing head and two fatty acid tails attached to a backbone of
glycerol
which of the following will diffuse across a lipd bilayer?
carbon dioxide
scientists demonstrated the fluidity of plasma membrane proteins by
fusing the membranes of two different species
an ATPase pump takes part in
active transport
hydrostatic pressure
is the pressure that a fluid exerts against a structure enclosing it
active transport
is a process whereby molecules move from an area of low to high concentration, moves ions against a concentration gradient, involves use of energy, and counteracts the process of diffusion
if a plant synthesizes a secondary cell wall it is laid down
between plasma membrane and the primary cell wall
which of the following consists of nonliving substance?
cell wall
which of the following statements about the plant cell wall is not ture?
the middle lamella is laid down between the primary and secondary walls
which of the following structures would probably be least damaged by a fat or lipid dissolving solvent
cell wall
the only part of a green plant that is actually green is the
grana of choloroplasts
which of the following structures is not associated with chloroplasts
cristae
the stacks of coin shaped double membranes found in chloroplasts are
grana
salt is spread on clay tennis courts to kill weeds.based on your study of biology, how would you explain the process through which the weeds are killed
water diffused out of the the plant cells thereby weakening or killing them by plasmolysis
the membrane of pectin that is laid down between two daughter cells during cytokinesis is called the
middle lamella
which of the following is directly involved with the process of cellular respiration
mitochondria
the inner layer of the mitochondrial membrane may be invaginated to form
cristae
which is a characteristic of all life on earth
cells must take in raw materials, cells must take in enerfy, cells must build biological molecules, the cellular interior must be isolated from the environment
a cell without nucleoli is probably not producing
ribosomes
what is the main product of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
proteins
if lysosomes burst inside a cell the immediate result is likely to be
the cell will be digested from within
which organelle below is capable of producing its own protein
mitochondrium
which organelle below is capable of producing its own protein?
chloroplast
Lysosomes contain _____ enzymes
digestive
vesicles derived from the ER make their way to the ____, an organelle that functions in packaging, storage, and disribution
dictyosome
the double membrane systems around the cell's organelles are really two membranes, each of which may be referred to as a
none of these
which is the organelle with cristate?
mitochondria
the principle structural carbohydrate in plants is
cellulose
the cell theory states
all living things consist of cells
the primary structural difference between plant and animal cells is that most plant cells are
enclosed by a cell wall
the nucleoulus consists of
ribosomal subunits
the largest double membrane bound organelle is called the
nucleus
the smal compartmentalized structres withing the cytoplasm of living cells are called
organelles
cell structures that apparently function in controlling the addition of cellulose to the cell wall, in steering vesicles from the golgi bodies to the cell wall and in aiding movement within the cell are
microtubules
which of the following objects found in living cells is not bound by a membrane or membranes?
ribosomes
cell turgor pressure is increased when the cell is transferred to an external medium having
a higher concentration of water than the cell
the shrinking cytoplasm within a cell because of loss of water by osmosis is called
plasmolysis
the little tanks that hold and modify cell products in this cell organelle are called
dictyosome
name three nucleic acids
DNA, RNA, and ATP
which of the following macromolecules is composed of amino acid subunits
proteins
which of the follwing may possess primary secondary tertiary and quaternary structure
proteins
which of the follwing reactions requires the removal of water to form covalent bond?
glucose plus galactose is lactose
which of these is an example of a protein
hemoglobin
which of the following macromolecules is composed of monomer units containing a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base
nucleic acids
large biological molecules are synthesized by removing
water
the energy produced in the mitochondrion is made available to the cell in the form of which of the following molecules
the nucleotide ATP
a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, dna, ribsomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. it could be a cell from
a plant or an animal
membrane proteins are synthesized on ribosomes that are
attached to the rough ER
which of the following is released form the Golgi apparatus
lysosomes and secretory vesicles
which cellular component packages hydrolytic enzymes into lysosomes
golgi apparatus
which of the following organelles is continuous with the nuclear membrane?
rough ER
what primarily determines the shape of cells that lack cell walls
cytoskeleton
which organelle extracts energy from food molecules and stores it in the high energy bonds of ATP
mitochondrion
compared to cilia, flagella are
longer
cilia move
fluid across the surface of a cell
cardiac muscles consume more energy than any other type of cell. which organelle would you expect to be most abundant in cardiac muscle cells
mitochondrion
microtubules are responsible for all of the following except
pinching off the cytoplasm at eukaryotic cell division
proteins destined to be secreted from the cell are often modified in the golgi apparatus by the addition of
sugars
mitochondria are often called the powerhouses of the cell because they
are the site of energy producing reaction that power most cellular activities
the golgi apparatus packages materials into ____ for transport or export
vesicles
cytoskeletal filaments are built of
protein
which of the following cell structures would be found in an animal cell, but not in a bacterial cell?
ER
in metaboically active cells, you would expect to find a large number of
mitochondria
which of the following is associated with the rough ER
ribosomes
the phospholipids and cholesterol that are used to form membranes are synthesized in the
smooth ER
Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in all of the following except that
eukaryotic cells have very little DNA compared to prokaryotic cells
electron microscopes and light microscopes work the same way in principle but differ in that electron microscopes
can resolve much smaller structures, use beams of electrons to illuminate the specimen instead of light, can visualize the inside of a cell, use magnets to focus the illumination instead of flass lenses
the nucleoulus is
an area in the eukaryotic nucleus where ribosomes are constructed
flagellated bacteria
can move toward a favorable environment
what of the following is not characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?
nuclear membrane
what is the fate of defective or malfunctioning organelles in cells?
they are broken down by lysosomal digestive enzymes
the golgi apparatus receives vesicles that arise at
the ER
a plant cell adapted for waste storage and disposal would probably contain a large number of
vacuoles
cells must possess all of the following except
the nuclear envelope
how do substances move through the golgi apparatus?
they are carried in vesicles from one part of the Goli apparatus to the next and they are carried in vesicle membranes from one part of th eGolgi apparatus to the net
what is the meaning of the term prokaryotic
before the nucleus
secreted proteins would be synthesized on ribosomes
on the rough ER
the correct pathway of information flow in the cell
DNA, RNA, protein
what buds off of the golgi complex?
vesicles
which pair of organelles is responsible for energy supply to eukaryotic cells
chloroplasts and mitochondria
endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis
of lipids, more ER, and testosteroe
which statement accurately describes the interaction between ER, ribosomes, and Golgi bodies in the export of protein from the cell?
ribosomes manufacture proteins which travel through the ER to be packaged by the Golgi bodies for export
what is the function of a plant cell vacuole
storage of wastes and support of the cell
DNA located in which of the following
plant cells, prokaryotic cells, animal cells and chloroplasts
of the following cell components which is composed primarily of protein?
cytoskeleton
phospholipids
are found in cell membranes
which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy
chloroplasts
which of the following is associated with rough ER
ribosomes