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A branching diagram whose branches represent real lineages that occured in the evolutionary past
Small spined extrusomes in ciliate protozoa that are discharged apparently to aid in the capture of prey or to serve as a defensive mechanism
Out of all metazoans, members of ____ have the smallest nuclear genome but the largest mitochondrial genome.
______ is a fibrous protein found in connective tissue, and probably the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
"An irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms, diagnosably distinct from other such groupings, and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and decent" describes the
Phylogenetic Species Concept
A variety of nonnervous cells that insulate neurons and serve various supportive functions is
Gametic nuclei arising by meiosis and forming a zygote within the same organism that produced them is a process called
Which statement most closley represents the diversity of animal patterns resulting from the Cambrian time period
About 100 phyla evolved by the end of the Vambrian and there are now about 32 surviving animal phyla
Which is NOT a major goal of systematic zoology?
Group animals based on their destructiveness or usefulness to human activity
The most correct usage of the term "protozoa" is
As an informal cluster of groups with complicated and uncertain phyletic relationships
Which one of the following hypotheses regarding the origin of metazoas has the most support?
Metazoa arose from a colonial flagellates form similar to Volvox which became independent and specialized.
The classic Linnaean ranks for animals, from largest and most inclusive to smallest and least inclusive, is as follows:
Compared to metazoans, the correct perspective on cellular organization of unicellular eukaryotes is
They are complex and must accomplish within a cell the functions that several specialized cells accomplish in metazoa
The order in which a drop of ink would pass by the structures in a sponge is
Which of the following terms is NOT correctly associated
Monophyly- one group formed from animals with two separate ancestors
Which of the following types of tissue provides movement for and throughout the entire body?
Which of the following represents the arrangement of microtubules in axonemes of cilia?
Nine peripheral pairs of microtubules plus one central pair
A taxon is monophyletic if it
Includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants
The outer thin, flat, epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges are
Animals with bilateral symmetry
Are better adapted for directed forward movement than radilly symmetrical organisms
Which of the following is NOT an importand criterion for species recognition among the many definitions?
Possession of distinct morphological differences
Most of the time, although they usually have other options, protozoans reproduce by
Asexual cell division
A sponge feeds by
Beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells
Animals that have one solid mass of tissue rather than tissues and organs nestled inside a body cavity are
Acoelomate (and triploblastic)
Museum type specimens are kept as "name bearers" for comparison when potentially new species are discovered. However, the origional use of type specimens reflected a sense of the "ideal" or "perfect" specimen as seen in the _____ species concept.
Cells that move about in the mesohyl and digest particles and may specialize for other functions are
G.G. Simpson provided a definition of an evolutionary species as "a single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate." How does this compare with the biological species concept of Mayr?
Mayr's definition is limited to sexually reproducing organisms whereas Simpson's theoretically coers all life
The difference between schizocoelous and enterocoelous organisms is
A big difference in how the true coleom forms from mesoderm: from the gut or blastopore region.
If you press a sponge through a coarse cloth bag, the cells will
Reassemble into many smaller sponges with each cell resuming its original job
Which protozoan group has a complicated parasitic life cycle that nearly always involves the production of infective spores?
The chills and fever of Malaria are correlated with
escape of populations of merozoites from red blood cells
The largest impact that the loss of sponges would have on the enviroment would be
Loss of filtration
What are the functions of the macronucleus and one or more small micronuclei in Paramecium?
The micronucleus undergoes meiosis to produce haploid micronuclei that are exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is responsible for the "day-to-day" functions of the cell
Which of the following represents a method to compensate for surface-area-to-volume limitations?
All of the choices represent factors directly realated to the surface-area-to-volume ratio
Which of the following represents analogous structures?
The wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
The traditional view of cnidarians relative to germ layers is that cnidaria possess
Two germ layers, ectoderm, and endoderm
The rRNA evidence and similarities in complex biochemical pathways support which hypotheses on the origin of metazoa
Metazoa arose from a colonial flagellates form similar to Volvox which became independent and specialized
Generally, only one sperm fertilizes an egg because
When the first sperm membrane fuses with the egg membrane, it separates the fertilization membrane and forms a barrier to other sperm
The ____ stage is best adapted for cnidarians living in colonies while the ___ stage helps in dispersal and survival in open oceans.
Tissues that seem to violate the cell theory because the nuclei are not separated by cell membranes are
The effect of yolk on cleavage is that
Yolk slows down and indirectly determines the type of cleavage to take place
The nercous system of a freshwater planarian consists of
A simple brain of ganglion cells leading to a ladder-type nerce network
Throughout most cnidarian groups, the basal or pedal disc serves to
Attach the cnidarian to the substrate
Zoologists used to refer to animals as "simple" and "advanced." Now it is more scientifically accurate to use
"Ancestral" and "derived," since some early forms became very complex and some highly evolved forms are derived from them but lost complex characters and secondarily became more "simple"
Cleavage on the surface of the yolk of the chicken egg is partial because cleavage furrows cannoy cut through; this is called
Which is NOT a factor in cephalization?
Concentration of the sensory organs to increase sexual copulatory function
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