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96 terms

Bio 121- General Zoology Exam 2

Harding University
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An animal that possesses an ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
triploblastic
A branching diagram whose branches represent real lineages that occured in the evolutionary past
Phylogenic Tree
Small spined extrusomes in ciliate protozoa that are discharged apparently to aid in the capture of prey or to serve as a defensive mechanism
scelerocytes
Out of all metazoans, members of ____ have the smallest nuclear genome but the largest mitochondrial genome.
Placotoa
Similar cells grouped together to perform a common function
Tissue
A derived charater shared by members of a clade
symplesiomorphy
The protozoan group that contains only endoparasitic forms
apicomplexa
The minute, needle-like structures that act as a skeletal support system in sponges
Spicules
______ is a fibrous protein found in connective tissue, and probably the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom
Collagen
A branching diagram representing a nested heirarchical pattern of clades
Cladogram
Osmoregulation in some protozoa is carried out chiefly by a structure called
Control vacuole
The tough protien fibers sometimes found in sponge skeletons are of a substance called
spongin
Serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis of the body
metamerism
"An irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms, diagnosably distinct from other such groupings, and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and decent" describes the
Phylogenetic Species Concept
The structure in Euglena that functions to orient it to light is the ____ or eyespot.
Stigma
Internal buds of sponges that can withstand adverse conditions are
gemmules
A variety of nonnervous cells that insulate neurons and serve various supportive functions is
neuroglia
Species that have very restricted geographic distributions are called
endemic
Gametic nuclei arising by meiosis and forming a zygote within the same organism that produced them is a process called
autogamy
The water outlet in sponges is known as
osculum
Which statement most closley represents the diversity of animal patterns resulting from the Cambrian time period
About 100 phyla evolved by the end of the Vambrian and there are now about 32 surviving animal phyla
Which is NOT a major goal of systematic zoology?
Group animals based on their destructiveness or usefulness to human activity
The most correct usage of the term "protozoa" is
As an informal cluster of groups with complicated and uncertain phyletic relationships
Which one of the following hypotheses regarding the origin of metazoas has the most support?
Metazoa arose from a colonial flagellates form similar to Volvox which became independent and specialized.
A blastula develops into which state as the gut cavity develops?
Gastrula
The classic Linnaean ranks for animals, from largest and most inclusive to smallest and least inclusive, is as follows:
Domain, kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species
Compared to metazoans, the correct perspective on cellular organization of unicellular eukaryotes is
They are complex and must accomplish within a cell the functions that several specialized cells accomplish in metazoa
Which statement about adult sponges is false?
Their bodies are aggregations of one cell type
Which type of tissue lines body cavities and covers body surfaces?
Epithelial tissue
Character similarity that results from common embryology and therefore ancestry is called
Homology
Nutrition in unicellular eukaryotes is best described as
All of the choices are correct
The order in which a drop of ink would pass by the structures in a sponge is
Ostia-spongocoel-osculum
Blood is an example of a tissue known as
Connective
Which of the following terms is NOT correctly associated
Monophyly- one group formed from animals with two separate ancestors
Long, thin pseudopodia supported by axial rods of microtubules are
Axopodia
The simplest of canal systems is found in the
Asconoids
Which of the following types of tissue provides movement for and throughout the entire body?
Muscle tissue
Characters used to distinguish one group from another must be
Any or all of the above
Which of the following represents the arrangement of microtubules in axonemes of cilia?
Nine peripheral pairs of microtubules plus one central pair
The extracellular matrix found in sponges is
Mesohyl
Which tissue recieves, interprets, and produces a response to stimuli?
Nervous tissue
A taxon is monophyletic if it
Includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants
At the end of the oral groove in a Paramecium ciliate is a mouth structure called the
Cytostome
The outer thin, flat, epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges are
Pinacocytes
Animals with bilateral symmetry
Are better adapted for directed forward movement than radilly symmetrical organisms
Which of the following is NOT an importand criterion for species recognition among the many definitions?
Possession of distinct morphological differences
Most of the time, although they usually have other options, protozoans reproduce by
Asexual cell division
A sponge feeds by
Beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells
Animals that have one solid mass of tissue rather than tissues and organs nestled inside a body cavity are
Acoelomate (and triploblastic)
Museum type specimens are kept as "name bearers" for comparison when potentially new species are discovered. However, the origional use of type specimens reflected a sense of the "ideal" or "perfect" specimen as seen in the _____ species concept.
Typological
During conjugation in most ciliates
Haploid micronuclei are exchanged
Cells that move about in the mesohyl and digest particles and may specialize for other functions are
Archaeocytes
Animals with organs in a cavity that is not completely lined with mesoderm are
Pseudocoelomate
G.G. Simpson provided a definition of an evolutionary species as "a single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate." How does this compare with the biological species concept of Mayr?
Mayr's definition is limited to sexually reproducing organisms whereas Simpson's theoretically coers all life
A protozoan with both plant-like photosynthesis and animal-like motility is most likely a
Euglenoid
Cells responsible for water flow and capture of some particles are the
Choanocytes
The difference between schizocoelous and enterocoelous organisms is
A big difference in how the true coleom forms from mesoderm: from the gut or blastopore region.
Protozoans in the genus Trypanosoma cause
African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease
If you press a sponge through a coarse cloth bag, the cells will
Reassemble into many smaller sponges with each cell resuming its original job
Chalky fossils that formed the White Cliffs of Dover were produced by
Foraminiferans
The free-swimming larva of most sponges is a
Parenchymula
Which protozoan group has a complicated parasitic life cycle that nearly always involves the production of infective spores?
Apicomplexans
The demosponges
Are mostly marine but include the freshwater sponges
The chills and fever of Malaria are correlated with
escape of populations of merozoites from red blood cells
The largest impact that the loss of sponges would have on the enviroment would be
Loss of filtration
What are the functions of the macronucleus and one or more small micronuclei in Paramecium?
The micronucleus undergoes meiosis to produce haploid micronuclei that are exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is responsible for the "day-to-day" functions of the cell
Which of the following represents a method to compensate for surface-area-to-volume limitations?
All of the choices represent factors directly realated to the surface-area-to-volume ratio
A phylogeny based on evolutionary theory will
All of the choices are correct
Epithelial tissue is classified into
Simple and stratified epithelia
Which of the following represents analogous structures?
The wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
The point of fertilization occurs when
The sperm nucleus and egg nucleus unite to form a zygote
The traditional view of cnidarians relative to germ layers is that cnidaria possess
Two germ layers, ectoderm, and endoderm
The rRNA evidence and similarities in complex biochemical pathways support which hypotheses on the origin of metazoa
Metazoa arose from a colonial flagellates form similar to Volvox which became independent and specialized
Generally, only one sperm fertilizes an egg because
When the first sperm membrane fuses with the egg membrane, it separates the fertilization membrane and forms a barrier to other sperm
Which of the following is not a class of the Phylum Platyhelminthes?
Nemertea
The ____ stage is best adapted for cnidarians living in colonies while the ___ stage helps in dispersal and survival in open oceans.
Polyp, medusa
Eggs with very little yolk that is evenly distributed in the egg are called
Isolecithal
Tissues that seem to violate the cell theory because the nuclei are not separated by cell membranes are
Syncytial
The unique feature(s) of a cnidarian nervous system is/are
all of the choices are correct
The function of the contractile vacuole in protozoa is
Water balance
The effect of yolk on cleavage is that
Yolk slows down and indirectly determines the type of cleavage to take place
The nercous system of a freshwater planarian consists of
A simple brain of ganglion cells leading to a ladder-type nerce network
Throughout most cnidarian groups, the basal or pedal disc serves to
Attach the cnidarian to the substrate
Zoologists used to refer to animals as "simple" and "advanced." Now it is more scientifically accurate to use
"Ancestral" and "derived," since some early forms became very complex and some highly evolved forms are derived from them but lost complex characters and secondarily became more "simple"
Cleavage on the surface of the yolk of the chicken egg is partial because cleavage furrows cannoy cut through; this is called
Meroblastic
Ribbon worms are
All of the choices are correct
The class of radiate animals with the most conspicuous medusa stage is
Schphozoa
Specialized archaeocytes that secrete spicules are
Sclerocytes
A solid ball of cells with a hollow cavity inside is the
Blastula
The monogenetic flukes
Are mostly ectoparasites
Ctenophores capture food by
Colloblasts
In nearly all metazoa, "germ layers" is a term that describes
Mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm
The large posterior attachment organ of the adult monogenean is a/an
Opisthaptor
Which is NOT a factor in cephalization?
Concentration of the sensory organs to increase sexual copulatory function
Sea anemones and corals lack
A medusa stage
The region used for the attachment of a tapeworm is called the
Scolex