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68 terms

A&P 2 chapter 18

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vitamin d
promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus
B vitamins
essential for normal cellular metabolism, involved in the oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and water soluble
grouped because they are in the same foods
pernicious anemia
condition associated with lack of instrinsic factor and decrease absorption of cyandsalamin
instricsic factor
regulates the absorption of B12
panthothenic acid
functions as part of coenzyme A
excess niacin
causes vomiting, diarrhea, and flushing
vitamin C
nessacary for producing collagen
iron
a trace element
escess calcium
causes deposition of calcium in soft tissue
excess potassium
excreted in urine
magnesium
synthesizing and using ATP
pica
compulsivly eat non-nutrienttive substances, such as laundry, staerch, dirt, hair and clay
kwasiorkor
may develope in children who have a dietary defincienies of proteins
the liver
stores vitamin A so a definciency may take years to be noticed
burning 500 calories a day or running 500 hundred calories a day will lead to the
loss of one pound of fat a week
60% or more carbohyrates mostly from grain and vegetables
good general dietary advice for athletes is to eat
macronutrients
carbohydrates, fats, and protein
carbohydrates
ribose and deoxyribose
12 hours
glycogen in an adult muscles has enough energy for anout
liver
cholesteral is synthesized chiefly in the
essential amino acid
a comple protein has adequent amount of
amino acids
synthesizes proteins for cellular structures and for enrgy
synthesize protein that function in various body processes
overweight
BMI of 27
positive energy balance
caloric intake exceeding caloric output is a
BMI over 30
obesity is defined as
vitamin A
an antioxident
Vitamin E
primary stored in adipose tissue and muscle
bones and teeth
calcium, phosphorus and hemeostatic mechaisms regulate their concentrations
producing melanin and myelin
copper is essential for
relative proportions of diet based on nutritional philosophies
food pyramids organize foods according to
metabolism
the ways that nutrients are altered chemically and used in cells to build up and break down compounds is called
monosaceharides
fructose, glucose, and galactose are
triglycerides
the most common dietary lipids are fat
bile
colesteral emoved from blood is excreted as a component of
amino acids
proteins and digested into
vitamin D, sterol
--------- can be synthesized from a ------- in the skin
albumin
riboflavin is carried in the blood combined with the blood protein called
niacin, tryptophan
--------- can be synthesized in human cells from the essential amino acid -----------
pyridoxin, pyriodoxal, pyridoxamine
forms of vitamin B6
bomb calorimeter
instument that measures the caloric contents of a food sample
iodine, idolized salt
------- is commonly added artifically to food in the form of --------
bulimia
hannah eats tramendous amounts of food, but takes a laxitive, vomits and exercises to keep from gainoing weight
lacto-vetetarian
sarah eats only dairy, and no meats or eggs
leptin
after eating ------ signals the hypothalamus to surpress appetite
lack of exposure to the sun
vitamin D deficiency especially in older people results from
essentials
nutrients necessary for health that human cells cannot synthesize
calories
units of hest that measure the amount of energy in food
75%
about --------- of the minerals in the body are in bones and teeth
magnesium
important in providing energy
magnesium
affects ATP production
15-21%
a group of girls at a middle school are all suffering from anarexia nervosa, counselor tell them it a sereous disease that -----------% die from
inhibitation of Ghrelin hormone
may help in weight lose
continuous glucose
cells of the nervous system most require
sugars that are part of DNA and RNA
ribose and deoxyribose
glycogen
provides short-term energy after cellular glucole supply are depleted
monounsaturated fat
olive oil
eggs
provides a source of complete protein
amino acids
a negative nitrogen result from a net loss of
deamination
a major step in extracting energy from proteins
8
How many amino acids needed for adults
factors that effect BMR
body size, body temperture, level of endocrine activity, gender
BMI
measures weight in proportion to height
a large calorie equals the amount of heat required to raise the tempurture of a kilogram of water by 1 degree celsium
...
deficiecy of vitamin A
cause night blindness
dificiency of vitamin D
causes osteomalacia
deficiency of vitamin K
treatment of antibiotics dugs is sometimes followed by
excess intake of vitamin D
leads to possibly dangerous overdose conditions
Fat-soluble vitamins
absorbed more readily in the preaence of bile salt