History and Systems of Psychology Chapter 2
Terms in this set (69)
Observed, real, actual
For Aristotle, the active mental search for the recollection of past experiences.
According to Aristotle, the faculty of the soul that searches for the essences or abstract concepts that manifest themselves in the empirical world. Aristotle thought that the active reason part of the soul was immortal.
One of the first Greek physicians to move away from the magic and superstition of temple medicine and toward a natuarlistic understanding and treatment of illness.
Allegory of the cave
Plato's description of individuals who live their lives in accordance with the shadows of reality provided by sensory experience instead of in accordance with the true reality beyond sensory experience.
Analogy of the divided line
Plato's illustration of his contention that these is a hierarchy of understanding. The lowest type of understanding is based os images of empirical objects. Next highest is an understanding of empirical ovjects themlelves, which results only in opinion. Next is an understanding of abstract mathematical priciples. then comes an understanding of the forms. The highest understanding(true knowledge) is an understanding of the form of the good that includes a knowledge of all forms and their organization.
Pastulated an infinite number of elements (seeds) from which everything is made. He believed that everything contains all the elements and that a thing's identity is determined by which elements predominate. An exception is the mind, which contains no other element but may combine with other elements, thereby creating life.
Suggested the infinite or boundless as the physis and formulated a rudimentary theory of evolution.
The belief that everything in nature is alive
The projection of human attibutes onto non human things.
Believed sensory experience to be the basis of all knowledge, although the five senses and the common sense provided only the information from which knowledge could be derived. Aristotle also believed that everything in nature had within it an entelechy (purpose) that determined its potential. Active reason, which was consedered the immortal part of the human soul, provided humans with their greatest potential, and therefore fully actualized humans engage in active reason. Because everything was thought to have a cause, Aristotle postulated an unmoved mover that caused everything in the world but was not itself caused
The philosophical velief that mental phenomena, such as , remembering, and imagining, can be explained in terms of the laws of association
According to Heraclitus, the state of everything in the universe. Nothing is static and unchanging ; rather everythin in the universe is dynamic- that is, becoming something other than what is was.
Somthing that is unchanging and thus, in principle is capable of being known with certanty. Being implies stabilityand certainty; becoming implies instability and uncertainty.
According to Aristotle, the faculty located in the heart that sythesizes the information provided by the five senses.
The study of the origin, structure, and processes governing the universe.
offered atoms as the physis. Everything in nature, including humans, was explained in terms of atoms and their activities. His was the first completely materialistic view of the world and of humans.
religion whose major belief was that the soul becomes a prosoner of the body because of some trasgession committed by the soul. The soul continues on a circle of transmigration until it has been purged of sin, at which time it can scape its earthly existence and return to its pure, divine existence among the gods. A number of magical practices were thought useful in releasing the soul from its bodily tomb.
for Plato, the manidestatin of numerous irrational impulses that, while awake, would be under rational control. for aristotle, the experience of images retained from waking experience. Dreams are often bizarre because the images experienced during sleep are neither oragnized by our rational powers nor supported by ongoing sensory experience. that dreams sometimes correspond to future events was , for Aristotle, mere cogerated in dreams, physicians can sometimes use dreams to detect the early signs of disease.
According to Aristotle, the force that transforms a thing
a tiny teplication that some early greek philosophers thought emanated from the surfaces of things in the environment, allowing the things to be perceived.
the belief that complex proccess can be understood by studying the elements of which they consist
Postulated earth, fire, air, and water as the four basic elements from which evrything is made and two forces, love and strife, that alternately synthesize and seperate those elements. He was also the first philosopher to suggest a theory of percetption , and he offered a theory of evolution that emphasized a rudimentary form of natural selection.
Accourding to Aristotle, the purpose for which a thing exists, which remains a potential until actualized. Active reason, for example, is the human entelechy, but it exists only as a potential in many humans.
the indispensable characteristic of a thing that gives it its unique identity
According to Aristotle , the form of a thing
According to Plato, the pure, abstract realities that are unchanging and timeless and therefore knowable. Such forms create imperfect manifestation of themselves when they interact with matter. it is these imperfec manifestations of the forms that are the objecs of our sense impressions.
Was a physician to the Romans who gained his knowledge from caring for the gladiators. Built upon concepts of Hippocrates which included using observations and notes to assist in diagnosis and that physicians have knowledge of body and purpose of organs. Believed that illness was imbalance of the four bodily fluids/humors. Put medical knowledge into 22 volumes that served as standard medical textbooks into modern era.
"Nothing in excess, and everything in proportion"; The rule Aristotle suggested people follow to aboid excess and to live a life of moderation.
A Sophist who believed the only reality a person can experience is his or her subjective reality and that this reality can vever be accuratley communicated to another individual.
a presocratic Greek philosopher who said that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion as all things are in perpetual flux (circa 500 BC)
"Founder of Medicine" During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today.
According to Aristotle, the pondering of the images retained from past experiences.
the technique used by Socrates that examined many individual examples of a concept to discover what they all had in common
law of contiguity
a thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of things that are usually experienced along with it.
law of contrast
a thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of opposite things
law of frequency
A law of association holding that the more frequently two items occur together, the more strongly they are associated.
law of similarity
a Getalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging together as a unit
law of association
Those laws thought responsible for holding mental events together in memory. For Aristotle, the laws of association consisted of the lwas of contiguity, contrast, similarity, and frequency
various ceremonies and rituals that are designed to influence spirits
according to aristotle, what a thing is made of.
the belief that because what is considred true varies from person to person, any search for universal truth will fail. In other words, there is no one truth, only truths. the Sophists were nihilists
The religion based on a belief in the Olympian gods as they were described in the Homeric odes. Olympian religion tended to be favored by the privileged classes, whereas peasants,laborers, and slaves tended to favor the more mystical Dionysiac - Orphic religion.
Disagreed with the philosophy that things are always changing. This philosopher held that change was an illusion, that there is one reality, and that reality is fixed, uniform, finite, and motionless. This reality can only be understood through reason since sensory information is illusory.
According to Aristotle , the practical utilization of the information provided by the common sense
Those who search for or postulate a physis
a primary substance or element from which everything is thought to be derived.
one of Socrates' students, wrote a great deal; to him individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state. His search for just led him to the division of social classes, at the top philosopher-kings, next was warriors who protected society, third group contained everybody else. He also believed men and women should be treated equal and have the same education and the same right to all positions. Plato came under the influence of the Pythagoreans, and postulated the existence of an abstract world of forms or ideas that, when manifested in matter, make up the ovjects in the empirical world. The only true knowledge is that of the forms, a knowledge that can be gained only by reflecting on the innate contents of the soul. Sensory experience interferes with the attainment of knowledge and should be avoided.
a sophist who beleived truth is in perception, man is the measure of all things, since man is the only entity capable of answering his perceptions must be true.
Lived and peaked during the 500's B.C. Pythagoras attempted to explain everything in a mathematical and logical way, because he believed everything had a scientific or mathematical explanation. He explored numbers, ratios, and taught the Pythagorean theorem about the relationship in the sides of right angled triangles. Pythagoras also believed that the world was round.
According to Aristotle, the soul possessed only by humans. It incorporates the functions of the vegetative and sensitive sould and allows thinking about evernts in the empirical world and the abstaction of the concepts that characterize events in the empirical world.
For Aristotle, the active mental search for the recollection of past experiences
the theory that every complex phenomenon, especially in biology or psychology, can be explained by analyzing the simplest, most basic physical mechanisms that are in operation during the phenomenon
for Aristotle, the passive recollection of past experiences
reminiscence theory of knowledge
Plato's belief that knowledge is attained by remembering the experiences the soul had when it dwelled among the forms before entering the body
Aristotle's description of nature as being arranged in a hierarchy from formless matter to the unmoved mover. In this grand design , the only thing highter than humans was the unmoved mover.
According to Aristotle, the soul possessed by animals. It includes the funtions provided by the vegetative soul and provides the abaility to interact with the environment and to tratin the information gained from that interaction.
He believed that all knowledge is already present within each person; only critical examination is needed to call it forth. His method of teaching uses a question-and-answer format to lead the pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason. He taught many but accepted no pay; he believed that he goal of education was only to improve the individual
the belief that a person's subjective reality is the only reality that exists and can be known.
A group of philosopher-teachers who believed that "truth" was what people thought it to be. To convince others that something is true, one needs effective sophists taught.
the belief that nature is purposive. Aristotle's philosophy was teleological
Often called the first philosopher because her emphasized natuarl instead of supernatural explanations of thing. By encouraging the critical evaluation of his ideas and those of others, he is thought to have started the Golden Age of Greek philosophy. He believed water to be the primary element from which everything else was derived.
theory of forms
Plato's contention that ultimate reality consists of abstact ideas or forms that correspond to all objects in the empirical world. Knowledge of these abstaactions is innate and can be attained only through introspection.
transmigration of the soul
the Dionysiac-Orphic belief that because of some transgression, the soul is compelled to dwell in one earthly prison after another until it is purified
what Aristotle called the force that always existed and was responsible for setting the entire universe in motion but was not in itself set in motion by anything preceding it
the soul possessed by plants. It allows only growth , the intake of nutrition, and reprodection.
Believed people created gods in their own image. He noted that dark-skinned people created dark-skinned gods and light-skinned people created light-skinned gods.
1. technically, the paradoxical fact that if you keep reducing the distance between two things exactly in half, the distance never disappears.
2. one implication is that representation can never catch up with experience; writing can never catch up with the action that is narrating.
giving an abstract concept a name and then treating it as though it were a concret, tangible object