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Set of Key Terms from Chapters 6-8
Terms in this set (65)
A type of theory that takes each person as unified rather than as a collection of symptoms or a battlefield where psychic structures struggle with each other.
A type of theory that deals with dilemmas of existence such as freedom, choice, responsibility, and the meaning of life. Adlerian psychology is existential.
Style Of Life
the mosaic of life's pattern. They are internal sources of your values, beliefs, goals, and interests. Adler believed your personality was set by the time you were about 6 years old, and remains fairly constant throughout your lifetime. Your style of life determines how you perceive your own experiences.
where you "fit in" in your family. Adler believed that the main influence on your style of life is your social world as a child.
Sense of Inferiority
Awareness of your limitations and weaknesses in comparison to parents and siblings.
Strivings for Superiority
Responses to the feelings of inferiority, in which you develop physical and psychological ways to overcome them. Basically, striving to prove our value.
Birth Order Analysis
A typological system that assigns personality characteristics according to chronological place in the family
A method of exploring reality by using human experiences as raw materials. Basically, the way you interpret the experiences you have
The idea that reality is not objective but subjective, and not public but personal.
The fictional person to whom we conform our behavior.
Fictional future goal to which a person aspires.This goal is the end to which the person is aspiring, and his or her lifestyle is the means to that end.
a term...adapted from Adler's "private intelligence," describes the fictional line of reasoning proceeding from private meaning, that is, meaning premised upon the person's private and unique valuation of self, others, and the world, and what life requires of him or her.
unconscious systems of psychological organization and self-regulation developed as a result of the cumulative failures in significant, dependent relationships.
covers cooperation with people, concern for their welfare, contribution to society, and value placed on humanity. Social interest is an innate aptitude that develops with life experience, if everything goes well. As adults we have 3 arenas for expressing this: Community, Work, and Love.
Adler's concepts composed a growth model rather than a medical model. A growth model is one in which the client and therapist respectfully share the problems occurring as well as the treatment and outcome in the sessions they have.
"mistakes" we develop as naive children to make up reasons and principles behind what we see, and the reasons the principles are purely or partly fictional.
Early Childhood Recollection
specific scenes, not general memories, often called up from age 4-5.
If I could magically eliminate your symptoms immediately and completely, what would be different in your life?"
Behaving "As If"
The client tries out behaving "as if" he or she were psychologically better.
a feeling that oneself and the world are not going to change, so why try? Adler believed psychopathology equals a feeling of discouragement.
A system of thought that centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth and is concerned with the interests, needs, and welfare of humans.
A tendency that drives us toward our highest potential.
Organismic Valuing Process
A process that leads us to prize choices that are good for us and for the peace and harmony of humanity.
An ongoing actualization of potentials, capacities, and talents, as fulfillment of mission. Basically, it is the striving we have to be the absolute best we can be.
Periodic episodes individuals have on the way to self-actualization in which they feel wonder and awe, lose track of time and place, and are convinced that something valuable happened.
A pleasant to ecstatic state of un-self-conscious absorption during a mental or physical adversity.
The movement that investigates positive emotions like happiness, human strengths and virtues, and affirmative community-building.
The opposite of presenting a facade, either knowingly or unknowingly. The therapist must present themselves as a person and the counselor's feelings, thoughts, and actions are not at odds, though not all thoughts and feelings are expressed.
Unconditional Positive Regard
A warm acceptance of each aspect of the client's experience as being part of that client...No conditions of acceptance.
To sense the client's anger, fear, or confusion as if it were your own, yet without your own anger, fear, or confusions getting bound up in it.
A discrepancy between the actual experience of the organism and the self picture of the individual insofar that it represents that experience.
Locus of Evaluation
The place you value in terms of judging your actions and motivations, successes and failures.
Fully Functioning Persons
Someone who possesses an openness to experience, a trust in one's own experience, an internal locus of evaluation, and a willingness to be in process. THIS IS THE GOAL OF HUMANISTIC COUNSELING
Relationship between client and therapist is one of equality and genuineness. These create a psychological environment favorable to growth as a person.
A counselor's talk in session about her own thoughts, feelings, and experiences.
Focuses on the person as a dynamic system always under construction. This approach has more structure than Rogerian approach, in that the subject matter of the session is determined: the emergence of underrecognized internal experiences and resources.
An experiential approach defined as an in-the-moment therapy concerned with the immediate articulation of feelings on both the client's and counselor's parts.
The type of therapy created by Carl Rogers. Aims to produce the fully functioning person. Also called Humanistic Therapy.
Existential psychologists believe that beneath specific problems and personality defects are always problems inherent to all human existence. See human nature as neither positive or negative. Existentialists believe theres 4 problems we all will confront: Meaninglessness, Freedom, Isolation, and Death.
In the existential sense, we have some extent of freedom even in the most restrictive circumstances. Existentialists see freedom as a great responsibility, since having freedom of choice means taking personal responsibility for choices.
A pull toward our life purpose
The movement from wish into action.
Existential problem we face by feeling that we are ultimately alone.
In this, one must truly listen to the other: relinquish stereotypes and anticipations of the other, and allow oneself to be shaped by the other's response.
A way to avoid the pain of isolation, in which a person lets ego boundaries loosen and attempts to become one with an idealized other person.
Fear of dying. A person motivated by this will avoid the pursuit of life and all the risks it entails and choose a life of security.
The stance in which the same occurrence is different when perceived by different people. This stance allows therapists to understand people's problems as characteristics of their whole response to existence as they see it.
Focuses on the phenomenology of inner experience and how that defines meaning for any one person. Meaning is constructed by the individual.
Focuses on the individual's construal of meaning as influenced by people around him or her, and by other people as embodied in the cultural situation of the individual. Meaning is constructed by an interaction between the individual and outside forces.
Comes from a deep feeling of unease that arises from our awareness of the givens: our existence is finite, we are mortal, and there is no purpose but the one we create for ourselves.
An offshoot of existential anxiety, in which there's guilt not for sins of commission (actions) but for sins of omission (not taking action).
Places where a client gets emotionally stuck, like roadblocks in the journey of life.
The main technique used in counseling sessions in Existential Therapy sessions. In this, the counselor listens for themes in the client's talk that reflect the struggles with meaning and identity underneath the themes.
The questions-and-answer method of Socrates that Plato recorded in Dialogues. In other words, this consists of asking students questions that reveal their own knowledge.
A remark that points out some pattern (or theme) in a client's behavior, a pattern that the client doesn't yet consciously recognize.
The basic symbolic system used by humans for communicating meaning.
A technique of Logotherapy in which the counselor asks clients to exaggerate a symptom rather than try to suppress it or to purposely act out what they fear.
Technique of Logotherapy in which the counselor tries to counter this preoccupation by presenting activities where the client must focus on something else.
a compulsion to devote excessive attention to oneself.
The same thing as cognitive reframing, which involves changing the labels we use when thinking about ourselves and others.
Encouraging the client to work hard at changing, and expressing our certainty that they will prosper.
premised on the idea that the lives and the relationships of persons are shaped by:the knowledges and stories that communities of persons negotiate and engage in to give meaning to their experiences: and certain practices of self and of relationship that make up ways of life associated with these knowledges and stories.
A type of urgent experience that propels the individual into a confrontation with an existential situation.
Existential problem we have by wanting to feel we have meaning when there's no stable or present meaning in life. We must create meaning for ourselves.