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JOMC 101: Chapter 13
Terms in this set (157)
Most of the world's population now lives in countries where the press is free.
The United States follows a libertarian model of free expression and free press.
The Sedition Act strengthened First Amendment protections for citizens.
Only after the Sedition Act expired in 1801 did Americans broadly support the idea of a free press.
false, they supported it strongly before as well
The Supreme Court has defined censorship as prior restraint of speech.
If a soon-to-be-released article seems to violate libel or obscenity laws, most US courts would act to stop publication.
false, it must be published first in order to be illegal
Appropriating a writer's or artist's words or music without consent or payment is a form of expression that is not protected as speech.
Students who quote and cite a copyrighted source in a term paper for class are technically violating the law.
false, this falls under fair use
Libel is a right guaranteed by the First Amendment.
Defamation that is broadcast is considered slander because it is spoken rather than written.
false, broadcast defamation falls under libel
Public speech that causes someone damage or actual injury is libelous, even if the speech in question is true.
Reporters need to be careful about printing accusations made by attorneys in a court of law in case a suspect is later found "not guilty".
The Miller v. California case established a national standard for obscenity that is the same for all communities in the United States.
false, it is not the same for all communities
Ordinary citizens have more privacy protection under US law than politicians or other public figures.
There is no federal shield law for journalists in the United States.
In 1912, federal law outlawed the transportation of boxing movies across state lines - not because they were violent, but because there had been a black heavyweight boxing champion since 1908.
For the first half of the twentieth century, local and state film review boards were considered constitutional.
The US Supreme Court has defined motion pictures as free speech since 1915.
Movies released in the United States are required by federal law to be labeled with an MPAA movie rating.
When the movie rating system began in the late 1960s, the G, PG, PG13, R, X, and NC17 ratings were all developed at that time and put immediately into place.
Since its debut in 1990, the NC17 movie rating has been a commercially successful rating for films with adult content.
Print and broadcast media are not treated equally under the First Amendment.
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC
Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo
Currently, both print journalists and broadcasters need federal licenses to operate their businesses.
In twentieth-century Supreme Court decisions, the print media and broadcast media received the same First Amendment protections.
Newspapers are not required by law to give individuals an opportunity to reply to an editorial attack.
Broadcasters are no longer legally required to provide competing points of view when airing programs about controversial issues.
true, but only when the programs qualify as news
Compared with most other nations, the United States has ______________________ freedom of speech, religious tolerance, and press freedom.
Which model of the press is most often associated with today's mainstream US news media?
State leaders believe the press should serve the goals of the state in the ______________________ model.
The notion of the press working as the Fourth Estate, or as watchdog over the government, is contained in which model of speech and expression?
Which of the following is not characteristic of the libertarian model for expression and speech?
a. Tolerance for the expression of everything, from pornography to advocacy of anarchy.
b. Encouraging vigorous government criticism.
c. A great deal of trust in citizens' ability to distinguish truth from falsehood.
d. Arguing that the mass media have grown too powerful and need to become more socially responsible or face some sort of government regulation.
Which model of expression tolerates all forms of speech, including pornography?
According to the text, one of the first widely circulated arguments for a free, unlicensed press can be traced to _______________________.
Prior restraint means that courts and governments _________________________.
cannot block any publication or speech before it occurs
Which of the following statements about the Sedition Act of 1798 is not true?
a. It aimed to silence opposition to a possible war with France.
b. It led to a public backlash that ultimately supported greater protection of a free press.
c. A political party in power passed it to undermine efforts by an opposing political party.
d. It was supported and reinforced by President Thomas Jefferson when he later took office.
e. It was originally passed by Congress and signed into law by President John Adams.
Which statement about the Sedition Act of 1798 is true?
a. It was passed to silence editorials encouraging the country to take part in a pending war.
b. It was used to prosecute anti-Federalist newspapers.
c. It was renewed over and over again by several presidents after Adams.
d. It expired under President John Adams.
e. Its excesses actually helped bolster public support for taking rights away from a free press.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon's administration tried to block publication of _________________________.
The Pentagon Papers
The Pentagon Papers case involved what legal concerns?
"clear and present danger" to national security
In the Progressive magazine case, a federal district court took a course of action based on concern that the magazine would publish __________________________.
information about the making of the H-Bomb
Which of the following constituted a "clear and present danger" to national security according to the federal courts?
a. Publishing a design for the H-bomb in Progressive magazine
b. Prosecuting the president for potentially criminal acts
c. Stealing the Pentagon Papers and publishing them
d. Distributing antiwar pamphlets during peace time
e. None of the above.
Which laws, passed in 1917 and 1918, made it a federal crime to disrupt the nation's war effort?
The Sedition Acts
The creators of works such as books, music, lyrics, movies, and TV programs are protected if someone tries to make money off their work because of _________________________.
At the end of the copyright period, a creative work such as a book or song becomes ________________________.
part of public domain
Which statement about copyright law is true?
a. Copyright covers a creative work for only seven years after it is produced.
b. Companies like Disney are huge supporters of getting their material into the public domain.
c. Corporate owners spend lots of money getting Congress to shorten the length of copyright protections.
d. The original idea behind American copyright law was that authors would have a financial incentive to create original works, and after fourteen years others would be able to safely use it to create derivative works.
e. Copyright laws have remained virtually unchanged since they were written in the eighteenth century, being adapted without debate to new media.
In 1976, Congress extended the copyright period to _______________________.
the life of the author plus fifty years, or seventy-five years for a corporate copyright owner
A written or broadcast expression that defames someone's character is _________________.
Private individuals must prove falsehood, damages, and negligence to win which kind of case?
For public figures to successfully sue for libel, they must prove "actual malice", which means the news medium ____________________________.
knew the statement was false and printed or broadcast it anyway, or acted with reckless regard for the thruth
Reporters who print or broadcast statements made in court are protected against libel by _____________________________________.
The Supreme Court sided with Larry Flynt in his case against Jerry Falwell because ___________________________.
the magazine (Hustler) was entitled to constitutional protection
Which of the following is not part of the legal definition of obscenity?
a. The work as a whole must appeal to prurient interest.
b. The work as a whole must lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
c. The work must depict or describe dirty words and brutal violence.
d. The work must depict sexual conduct in a patently offensive way.
e. All of the above.
The US Supreme Court's standards for judging something as obscene include which of the following?
a. The average person, applying community standards, would find that the material as a whole appeals to prurient interest.
b. The material depicts sexual conduct in a patently offensive way.
c. The material as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
d. The work as a whole must be judged obscene.
e. All of the above.
Most battles over ______________________ are now online, where the global reach of the internet has eclipsed the concept of community standards.
Which of the following actions by the media is not a violation of the usual rights of privacy for a private citizen?
a. Taping or photographing a person in their home or other private space.
b. Sharing health records.
c. Using a person's image or quote in a news story without consent.
d. Disclosing information about religion, sexual activities, or personal activities.
e. Using a person's image or name, without consent, in advertisements or endorsements.
The ________________________ extended privacy protection to computer-stored data and the internet.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act
In 2001, the ________________________ weakened privacy laws and gave the federal government more latitude in searching private citizens' records and intercepting electronic communications without a court order.
USA PATRIOT Act
In 1912, in the first type of national action limiting the film industry, the US government banned the interstate commerce of which kinds of films?
The US government banned boxing films from being transported from state to state in 1915 because of concerns about _________________________.
race rather than violence
In the Mutual v. Ohio (1915) decision, the US Supreme Court ruled that film was a ________________________.
business and as such did not have First Amendment rights
The ____________________________________ case in 1952 determined that film should be protected as a form of free speech.
Burstyn v. Wilson
The US movie rating system is an example of __________________________________.
In the 1960s, radio programming that featured deejays and callers discussing intimate sexual topics was called ___________________________________.
Who came up with the "seven dirty words" comedy routine that landed a radio station in hot water with the FCC and resulted in rules about what times of the day a broadcaster can air "adult" material?
Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act requires broadcast stations to ___________________.
provide equal opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates
The __________________________ model for journalism and speech tolerates little public dissent or criticism of government.
The __________________________ model for journalism and speech places control in the hands of government, which speaks for ordinary citizens and workers in order to serve the common goals of the state.
The __________________________ model for journalism and speech encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of freedom for individual speech and news operations.
The ___________________ Estate is what the press is called when it operates as an unofficial branch of government, monitoring the legislative, judicial, and executive branches for abuses of power.
____________ restraint is the legal definition of censorship in the United States.
Charles T. Schenck was found guilty of violating the ___________________________ Act.
_____________________ is the legal right of authors and producers to own and control the use of their published or unpublished writing, music, and lyrics; TV programs and movies; or graphic art designs.
When a copyright period expires, the work is said to enter the _____________________________.
In media law, _____________________________ is the defamation of character in written or broadcast expression.
In libel law, _________________ refers to a reckless disregard for the truth, such as when a reporter or an editor knows that a statement is false and prints or airs it anyway.
The ___________________________ is the agency that regulates broadcasting in the United States.
Federal Communications Commission
Repealed in 1987, the _______________________ Doctrine required broadcast stations to both air and engage in controversial-issue programs that affected their communities and, when offering such programming, to provide competing points of view.
Defamation of character in written or broadcast form is considered ___________.
The Pentagon Papers case involved this legal concern
What was the name and purpose of a law passed in 1798 that caused the American public to support the idea of freedom of the press? How did this result compare with the intention of the law?
Why is the case of New York Times v. Sullivan so significant in First Amendment history?
Served as the standard for libel law.
Name and briefly explain at least three of the legal limitations on free speech.
sedition, libel, obscenity, violation of privacy
What was the rationale behind the first copyright laws? Have those laws changed over time, and if so, in what ways?
incentive for authors to create original works
What are the consequences of not having a federal shield law for journalists?
they are not safe from subpoenas and federal courts rule
Which is more important to a democracy—a right to free speech or a right not to be offended? Which court cases seem to support or argue against your position?
a right to free speech
English poet John Milton, author of Areopagitica, would say:
A democratic society requires a free press.
In Areopagitica, Milton argued against government licenses for printers and defended a free press as an important part of a democratic society.
Why was the Motion Picture Production Code created by the Hays Office in the early 1930s?
To verify that Hollywood films met moral standards
The Hays Office established the Motion Picture Production Code in the early 1930s and charged its overseers with officially stamping Hollywood films with a moral seal of approval.
Why was the PG-13 rating added to the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings system?
To indicate a slightly higher level of violence or adult themes
The MPAA added the PG-13 rating to distinguish slightly higher levels of violence or adult themes in movies that might otherwise qualify as PG-rated films.
Based on the information in Table 13.1, what can determine if a movie is rated NC-17?
a person must be at least eighteen years old to purchase a ticket to see the movie
Why did courts begin reevaluating their bans on broadcast equipment in the decades after the Bruno Hauptmann trial?
Broadcast equipment gradually became less obtrusive than it was during that trial.
Courts gradually reevaluated their bans on broadcast equipment because this equipment became more portable and less intrusive and because television became the major news source for most Americans.
Ken suspects that his girlfriend is cheating on him, so he secretly installs a device on her home telephone line that will allow him to listen in on her conversations from a remote location. What Ken is doing constitutes:
an invasion of privacy
The Communications Act of 1934 mandated that radio broadcasters operate in "the public interest, convenience, or necessity." Why did the federal government enact this law?
it determined that broadcast signals constitute a scarce national resource
Based on Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes's interpretation of the First Amendment in the Schenck v. United States (1919) appeal case, you can determine that Charles T. Schenck would not have been convicted if he had
Published his leaflets after the war was over.
Holmes noted that the Socialist leaflets were entitled to First Amendment protection, but only during times of peace. If Schenck had published the leaflets after the war ended, he would not have been convicted.
Laws against boxing films in the early twentieth century were primarily established because of concerns about
The race of the heavyweight boxing champion.
Laws against boxing films were established because Jack Johnson, the first black heavyweight champion, was perceived as a threat to some in the white community.
Why did the Fairness Doctrine end?
A federal court ruled that it was not an extension of Section 315 law.
The Fairness Doctrine ended with little public debate in 1987 after a federal court ruled that it was merely a regulation rather than an extension of Section 315 law.
Perry believes that the social responsibility model is the ideal journalistic model. Which statement would Perry agree with?
The press should cover society's range of economic classes.
As an advocate of the social responsibility model, Perry would argue that the press needs to cover society's range of economic classes and social groups to be more socially responsible.
Why was the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) established?
To improve relations between the public and the film industry.
The MPPDA was established to help smooth out problems between the public and the film industry. One of its first acts was to blacklist actors and extras with even minor police records.
Why aren't gag orders used to prohibit the press from releasing information about criminal cases in the United States anymore?
Their use was struck down by a Supreme Court review in 1976.
A Supreme Court review in 1976 struck down gag orders as a prior-restraint violation of the First Amendment.
Kendall published a book of poems in 1986, and he passed away in 1990. Under the copyright period set by Congress in 1998, when did, or when will, Kendall's book of poems enter the public domain?
Kendall's copyright will remain valid until 2060 under the 1998 copyright rules, which extended the copyright period for an author from fifty years after his or her death to seventy years after his or her death.
Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act requires broadcast stations to
provide equal opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates during elections.
Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act requires broadcast stations to provide equal opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates during elections.
How did the Supreme Court's ruling in the 1973 Miller v. California case affect the way that courts address obscenity today?
Courts now grant great latitude to printed and visual obscenity.
Since the Miller decision, courts have granted latitude to printed and visual obscenity, and by the 1990s, major prosecutions had become rare and were mostly aimed at child pornography.
How did European governments monitor the speech in newspapers in the 1600s?
They required printers to obtain licenses.
To publish a newspaper in Europe in the 1600s, a publisher would have to obtain a printer's license from the government. If the government believed that the newspaper was publishing inappropriate content, it could pull the printer's license and impose other punishments.
Can the government censor a libelous newspaper article prior to its publication? Why or why not?
No it cannot; the article cannot legally be libelous until it is published.
Supreme Court decisions have defined censorship as prior restraint, which means that the government cannot block any publication before it actually occurs, based on the principle that a law has not been broken until an illegal act has been committed.
What did the writers of the U.S. Constitution think about freedom of the press?
They believed that it was unnecessary to include a guarantee of freedom of the press in the Constitution.
The writers of the U.S. Constitution were ambivalent about freedom of the press. Nine of the original thirteen states already had charters defending freedom of the press, and Constitutional framer Alexander Hamilton thought that it was impractical to define "liberty of the press" in the Constitution.
Anya posted a message to her Facebook page expressing anger at her friend Heather, who had promised to attend her birthday party but never showed up. Their mutual friend Pablo responded to Anya's post, stating that Heather was probably out cheating on her husband again. Heather's husband found out about the post, assumed that it was true, and filed for divorce. In truth, Heather had never cheated on her husband, and she had missed Anya's party because she had to work late. Pablo's post about Heather constitutes
Pablo's post about Heather constitutes libel because it is a defamation of character in written form.
Based on the information in Table 13.1, you can determine that if a movie included extensive graphic violence and explicit sex scenes, it would likely earn which rating?
This type of movie would likely earn an NC-17 rating because its violent and sexual content is clearly intended for adults and should not be viewed by children.
Why do shield laws exist?
They serve the public interest by providing information that citizens might not otherwise receive.
Shield laws serve the public interest by providing information that citizens might not otherwise receive. They also help maintain a reporter's credibility and protect sources from possible retaliation.
Why did Congress create the first Copyright Act in 1790?
To give authors a financial incentive to create original works
The idea behind the first Copyright Act was that a period of copyright control would give authors financial incentive to create original works and that moving works into the public domain gives others incentive to create derivative works.
Tara is running for the city council seat currently held by Winston, who is running for reelection. Yesterday, Winston held a press conference to announce that a new budget deal had been reached, and it was broadcast on a local TV station. Tara believes that the broadcast gave Winston an unfair advantage and wants the TV station to give her free airtime to respond. Is the TV station required to give Tara free airtime? Why or why not?
No, it does not; the press conference is considered news.
The 1934 Communications Act was amended in 1959 to exempt newscasts, press conferences, and other events that qualify as news, so the station is not required to give Tara free time to respond to Winston's press conference.
Why did President Thomas Jefferson pardon all ten defendants who were convicted under the Sedition Act?
He believed that the Sedition Act was unconstitutional.
Jefferson pardoned them because he believed that the Sedition Act was unconstitutional because it violated the First Amendment. He believed that speaking out against the government should not be considered a crime.
Mary and Gary were a songwriting team in the 1920s. Their biggest hit, "Tallahassee Twirl," is now in the public domain. What does that mean?
Anyone can use the song "Tallahassee Twirl" without paying copyright royalties.
When a copyrighted work such as Tallahassee Twirl enters the public domain, the public receives free access to the work.
Edna wrote a newspaper article in which she stated that Lana had been fired from her last nursing job for malpractice, based on information that Edna obtained from one of Lana's neighbors. In truth, Lana left her job because she was unhappy with her wages. When Lana applied for a job at another medical practice, the human resources manager performed a Google search for Lana's name and found the article stating that she had committed malpractice. Although Lana denied having committed malpractice, the medical practice refused to hire her. Now Lana is suing Edna for libel. To be successful in her case, Lana must do all the following EXCEPT
- provide evidence that Edna was negligent in failing to determine whether the statement was true.
- provide proof that Edna's statement was false.
- show that Edna acted with actual malice when making her statement.
- show that the medical practice would not hire her because of the information in Edna's article.
show that Edna acted with actual malice when making her statement.
If Lana were a public official, she would have to show that Edna acted with actual malice, but because Lana is a private citizen, she is not obligated to do so.
When Congress passed the first Copyright Act in 1790, it gave authors the right to control their published works for how long?
The first Copyright Act gave authors the right to control their published works for fourteen years, with an opportunity for renewal for another fourteen years.
For material to be considered obscene under the current legal definition of obscenity, it must meet all EXCEPT which of the following criteria?
- The material depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way.
- The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the material as a whole appeals to prurient interest.
- The material, as a whole, must lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
- The material must be found to have corrupted the mind of one or more individuals due to its sexual content.
The material must be found to have corrupted the mind of one or more individuals due to its sexual content.
Under the current legal definition of obscenity, material can be deemed obscene without being shown to have corrupted anyone's mind.
Walt Disney Studios created the character Donald Duck in 1934. Under the copyright rules established by Congress in 1998, when did, or when will, the corporate copyright on Donald Duck expire?
Under the copyright rules established by Congress in 1998, the length of a corporate copyright was extended from seventy-five years to ninety-five years, meaning that under the current rules Disney's copyright on Donald Duck will expire in 2029.
In some countries, a _____ is issued by a court to prohibit the press from releasing information that might prejudice jury selection or cause an unfair trial.
In some countries, a court may issue a gag order to prohibit the press from releasing information or giving commentary that might prejudice jury selection or cause an unfair trial. Gag orders are no longer used to limit the press in the United States.
The distributor of Roberto Rossellini's film Il Miracolo (The Miracle) sued the New York Film Licensing Board for banning the film, and the case made it all the way to the Supreme Court in 1952. What effect did the Supreme Court's decision in the Miracle case have on the film industry?
It rendered most activities of film review boards unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court ruling rendered most activities of film review boards unconstitutional because they were engaging in prior restraint.
What protects reporters from having to reveal their sources for controversial information used in news stories?
Shield laws protect journalists from having to reveal their sources for controversial information used in news stories.
Why did government officials want to block publication of the Progressive's article on the H-bomb?
They believed that it would spread dangerous information.
Government officials were concerned that the publication of the article would make public the process involved in creating nuclear weapons, which not only would undermine national security but also could potentially lead to thermonuclear annihilation.
In 1800, Andrew published a novel about a soldier who fought in the Revolutionary War. Under the terms of the first Copyright Act, he could potentially hold the copyright on his novel until what year?
Andrew could potentially hold the copyright on his novel for up to twenty-eight years because the first Copyright Act gave authors the right to control their published works for fourteen years, with the opportunity for a renewal for another fourteen years.
Public debate about the Internet has focused on
First Amendment issues.
Public debate about the Internet has focused on First Amendment issues such as civility and pornography.
Which model of journalistic expression is based on the idea that the general public needs guidance from an elite ruling class?
According to the authoritarian model, the general public is largely uneducated and needs guidance from the elite, educated ruling class.
Drea considers herself a libertarian, which means that she would support
the publication of pornography.
As a libertarian, Drea would tolerate the expression of everything, from publishing pornography to advocating anarchy, and would argue that the best way to fight injustice and arrive at the truth is to allow people to speak with absolute freedom.
Why is it difficult for public figures to win libel suits against the press?
It is difficult to prove that the reporter or editor acted with actual malice.
It is difficult for public figures to win libel suits because actual malice against a public official is hard to prove. To do so, the public figure must prove what the reporter or editor was thinking prior to publishing or broadcasting the statement.
Which of these people could use absolute privilege as a defense against libel charges?
- Jesse, a community activist being sued for libel for distributing leaflets containing inflammatory statements about a local businessman
- Justine, a prosecutor being sued for libel for accusatory statements about a defendant made in court filings
- Aaron, a reporter being sued for libel for comments made about a city council member in a newspaper article
-Madeline, a college student being sued for libel for making false claims about one of her professors on Facebook
Justine, a prosecutor being sued for libel for accusatory statements about a defendant made in court filings
Prosecutors are granted absolute privilege in a court of law so that they are not prevented from making accusatory statements toward defendants.
An authoritarian would agree with which statement?
Censorship is necessary to promote social stability.
In authoritarian systems, journalism often joins with government and business to foster economic growth, minimize political dissent, and promote social stability because authoritarians believe that too much freedom would undermine the delicate stability of their social infrastructures.
When Edward moved in next door to Darcy, she disliked him because he set up a lawn-mower repair business in his garage and she did not like the noise. Although she did not like him, he was popular in the neighborhood and his business was going well. In an effort to get him to move out, Darcy began telling other neighbors on the block that he was a drug dealer, even though he was not. Before long, Edward's business trailed off because no one wanted to hire him, and he eventually had to shut it down. Darcy's statements about Edward constitute
Darcy's statements about Edward constitute slander because they were spoken, not published; false; and intended to injure his business.
What effect did the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 have on laws protecting citizens' right to privacy?
It weakened them.
The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 weakened the earlier laws protecting citizens' right to privacy and gave the federal government more latitude in searching private citizens' records and intercepting electronic communications without a court order.
The first champion of a free press was __________________________.
Along with the libertarian model, which model for expression and speech characterizes the main ideals of mainstream journalism in the United States?
The decision of which Supreme Court Justice represents the first time in American history that a prior-restraint order imposed in the name of national security stopped initial publication of a news report?
A _______________________ legally protects the rights of authors and producers to their published or unpublished works.
Why was the Child Online Protection Act was struck down in 2007?
Because it infringed on the right to free speech online.
Spurred by Jack Johnson's victory, in 1912 the government outlawed _____________________________.
Transportation of boxing movies across state lines.
When did the Supreme Court rule that movies were a form of protected speech?
In response to the 1920s scandals, the movie industry formed the _______ (MPPDA).
Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America
What did the Motion Picture Production Code ban from being portrayed in the movies?
Excessive and lustful kissing, suggestive postures, and negative portrayals of religion.
What Supreme Court case finally placed movies on the same footing as books and newspapers in terms of protection under the First Amendment?
Burstyn v. Wilson
Which of the following media enjoys the most amount of protection under law?
When did topless radio first emerge as a controversial radio feature?
According to a Supreme Court ruling, the FCC has the authority to stop broadcasters from airing adult content between _____ and _____.
6 A.M. / 10 P.M.
The Internet is currently considered __________.
a. a democratic forum for regional, national, and global interest groups
b. the one true venue for unlimited free speech under the First Amendment
c. a vehicle for fighting political oppression
d. All of the above
What is considered a citizen watchdog organization?
the Media Access Project
The version of the Constitution ratified in 1788 ___________.
did not include protections for free speech
Criticism of government and public dissent are not tolerated in which freedom of expression model?
In an important censorship case, the Nixon administration tried to restrain publication of _____.
the Pentagon Papers
The Espionage Acts of 1917 and 1918 made what a crime?
Laws that protect reporters from revealing the sources they have used in news stories are called _______________.
Members of movie review boards that screened films in the 1920s were made up of _______.
vice-squad officers, politicians, and citizens
In 1915, the Supreme Court of the United States declared the film industry to be ________.
A circus and entertainment with a "special capacity for evil".
Which popular silent-film actor was involved in a scandal in the early 1920s?
Why did the MPPDA establish a movie-rating system in the late 1960s?
Members of the public expressed renewed discontent over sexual language and imagery in movies
The _______ rating has not proved commercially viable and distributors avoid releasing films with the rating.
What Supreme Court case sided against broadcasters in 1969?
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC
_____ mandated that radio broadcasters operate in "the public interest, convenience, and necessity."
The Communications Act of 1934
Which of the following media is affected by Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act?
_____ required stations to air controversial-issue programs and provide competing points of view.
The Fairness Doctrine
By the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, traditional journalists were having difficulty covering stories about ________.
Media ownership, business practices in general, and media regulation.
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