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Introduction to Sociology 4: Social Structure & Interaction: Test 2 Review
Terms in this set (48)
Understand social structure
Social structure provides a framework consisting of an orderly, fixed arrangements of parts like institutions, statuses, groups, roles and norms which make up the whole group or society.
It provides the framework within which interact with others.
What Functionalists says about social structure
Functionalist says social structure provides orderly and predictability; it predicts behaviors & outcome.
What Conflict says about social structure
underneath the surface, social structure maintains division and equality.
Define social marginality
State of being part insider and part outsider in the social structure. conflict concept
a devaluation of a person's social identity that disqualifies a person from full social acceptance. Conflict concept
Labeling someone based on past behavior
stigmas can change
Understand status and role ,and the distinction between the two.
Status: a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights and duties.
Role: A set of expectations for someone who occupies a given status.
The distinction between role & status: YOU OCCUPY A STATUS; YOU PLAY A ROLE.
Understand role expectations
A group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.
How a person actually plays the role
Role performance doesn't always match role expectation.
Occurs when the expectations arising from two or more of your social statuses contradict each other.
Difficulties caused when a single status imposes conflicting demands and expectations.
Process disengagement from a role that is central to one's identity to establish a new identity.
role exit occurs in four stages
First stage : Is doubt, in which people experience frustration or burnt when they reflect on their existing role.
Second stage: A search for alternatives ; people may take a leave of absence from work or separate from their marriage partner.
Third stage: Is the turning point at which people realize that they must take some final action; such as quitting their job or getting a divorce.
Fourth Stage: Final stage involves the creation of a new identity.
Any number of interdependent people with similar, norms, values, and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis.
Small groups characterized by intimate face-to-face cooperation and association for an extended period.
Examples of primary group
Close friends, family, peers,
Larger formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding; usually more temporary.
Examples of secondary group
Schools, churches. corporations, people have few if any, emotional ties to one another; they come together for specific reasons such getting a paycheck or degree.
Organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
Functionalist views on social institutions
5 Essential task of social institutions
1. replacing personnel or members- societies and groups must have socially approved ways of replacing members who move away or die
2. Teaching new recruits-people who are born into society or move into it must learn the group's values & customs
3. Producing & distributing goods & service- All societies must provide & distribute goods & service for their members.
4.Preserving order- Every group must preserve order within its boundaries & protect itself from attack by outsiders.
5.Providing & maintaining s sense of purpose- In order to motive people to cooperate with one another, s sense of purpose is needed
Conflict views on social institutions
1. Major institutions helps maintain the privileges of the most powerful individuals and groups in a given society; this is looking at inequality, they look at the ones with power.
2. Social institutions are inherently conservation making institutional reforms very difficult- this means they tend to be resistant to change; its very hard to change o social institution.
3. Social institutions typically operate in gender & racist environments, with inherent assumptions about what certain people can and cannot do; certain set of values embedded in institutions.
Durkheim's social density
Durkheim is mainly interested in social cohesion; How do societies manage to hold together? What is the social cohesion for this society and that society; we are being faced with two societies that are not unified by the same thing because they are fundamentally different but yet they are holding together. Social solidarity holds them together
Refers to how many people there are; How close they are packed together; How often they interact; What kind of interaction, if they do it or not.
They depend on each other.
There is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bond.
Low social solidarity is held together with mechanical solidarity
High level of trust
People perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence
high division of labor.
High social density
Social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability.
Social change is limited
High sense of community
social control is maintained by the community
Personal relationship is based on ascribe
Social control is informal
Social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values.
interaction is one-to-one
High social density( large cities)
interact all day
Social construction of reality
The process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give an experience
How we view the world
How we respond
A false beliefs or prediction that produces behavior that makes the originally false beliefs come true.
Example: A sitution in which they find themselves.
Formal social control
Laws or polices carried out by official authorities
Written down ; involve specifisc punishments
Informal social control
Unofficial and casual means to enforce norms.
Getting on the elevator facing the wrong way,
Deviance and Crime
Laws can be universally applied to every member of society
To only certain people or to social institutions
The creation of laws can be controversial
May not necessarily reflect the values of everyone
Established rules or behavior or standards of conduct
Rewards For appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior
Deviance ( what is considered deviant)
Any behavior, beliefs or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs
It includes the violation of formal and informal .
Deviance can change: Time, Place, Perception, Situation
Can be influence by power
Society labels such people in way that devalue them called stigmas
The town drunk
(non-deviant)- accepts both normal means and goal
Keeping the norms
Accepts goals of society and works hard to suceed.
Understand the various factors that can change deviant
Deviant can change: Time ( EX; women smoking)
Place(EX; food in different cultures)
Situation ( EX;killing others)
Know the general Functionalist take on Deviance
Deviance can be functional
1. can clarify rules by contrast
2. can promote group solidarity
3. can promote change
Deviance can be dysfunctional
1. disrupts social order
can cause confusion about the norms,and values
Facilitate widespread non-conformity
Can destroy public trust in the social system
A social condition in which people experience a sense of futility because the social norms are weak,absent, conflicting.
Typically occurs in periods of significant social change and unrest
When the norms of society are unclear or no longer relevant, causing not enough guidelines for behavior
Born in it or receives it involuntarily
Assumes voluntarily through merit or choice
Has a spoiled identity as a result of being evaluated by others.
Examples : Bobbie get smashing drunk and drives his car 100 mph down the street , hops the curve and falls out the car
Is done all the time
Example: Coming home drunk every Friday night.
He gets the label known as the town drunk.
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISTS THEORIES UNDER DEVIANCE
Symbolic interactionists focus on social process such as how people develop self-concept and learn conforming behavior through socialization
According to this approach, deviance is learned in the same way as conformity-through interaction with people
can contribute to deviant behavior
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