American History Study Guide Vocab. Unit 1
Terms in this set (47)
A body of people living in a defined space, with the power to make and enforce laws with an organization to do this
A group of people who are the members or citizens of a state
The area in which a state's rule applies
The organization inside a state that controls the actions and polices of the state (makes laws, protects the state, keeps order inside the state), helps its citizens by providing services people need.
Government in which one person has all the power
King or Queen rules the country (Saudi Arabia)
One leader has absolute control over citizens' lives (North Korea)
Citizens hold the political power
Citizens elect leaders to represent their rights and interests in government (United States)
No representatives, citizens are directly involved in the day-to-day work of governing the country (New England Town Meeting).
Small group of people has all the power (China)
Junta: Small group of people who rule a country after taking it over by force
A government that recognizes God or a divine being as the ultimate authority
Nobody is in control... or everyone is
Rulebook for a country's government
Rule Of Law
Means laws are fair, they're enforced and nobody is above the law even the government must follow the law.
Separation Of Power
Dividing power among several branches of the government (no one person or part of government gets too much control)
Consent Of The Governed
The citizens of a country give their permission to be governed by the country's government and they do this by voting
Rights Of The Minority
Protecting the rights of small or unpopular groups regardless of what the majority believes
English Scholar and philosopher; tried to answer the question, "Why do we have government?" Hobbes was more concerned with protection than rights
State Of Nature
Before there were governments; everyone had a right to everything; always at war - Thomas Hobbes
An agreement between people and their government; both sides agree to something in order to reach a shared goal; people agree to give
Book written by Thomas Hobbes. He believed that a single sovereign, or ruler should have total authority to avoid the evils of war.
16oo's philosopher and political scientist, Jefferson studied Locke's writings and these ideas show up in our constitution
Locke Imagined that human being share the rights of; Life, Liberty, and Property.
Right To Revolution
If the government fails to deliver, the people have the right to revolt
He believed that a government's purpose is to protect liberty or freedom and to help people get along. He also believed the best form of government was a democracy
When people live in a state of nature (no rules or government) but are not secure.
When people give up some natural freedom so they can have the freedom that comes with protection (rules and government)
Baron de Mantesquieu
One of the great thinkers of the 17th and 18th century (France)
The peace of mind that comes from being safe... if governments could provide and enforce laws, it would increase liberty, reduce the problems of society and improve human life.
Checks And Balances
Each branch of the government has the ability to limit the power of the other two branches
(1215) King John was forced to sign it. Limits the power of the King
(1620) It set up government for colony of Plymouth. It is an example of a Social Contract. It was the first written framework for the U.S.
Petition Of Right
(1628) Signed by Charles I. Can't raise taxes without parliament's consent.
Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut
(1639) First colonial constitution. Protects rights of citizens
English Bill Of Rights
(1689) Signed by William and Mary. Limits the power of the Monarch. Spelled Out some of rights of citizens
Executive and Legislative Branches were the same
People had no say or power
There are laws
Executive and Legislative Branches are separate (Separation of Powers)
People have the right to vote for elected officials
Most leaders must follow rule of law.
The ability to rule absolutely within a territory; all states are considered equal to each other.
State Of Nature - John Locke
No rules, no one in charge, and no way for people to protect their natural rights.
Social Contract - John Locke
The people agree to give up some freedoms in exchange for government protection.
People wanting to live
People want to own things
The Social Contract
Written by Rousseau, government must be based on an agreement or contract, people agree to give up some freedoms in exchange for protection (democracy)
Representative Democracy - Rousseau
Citizens vote for a small number of people to represent the public in government
Direct Democracy - Rousseau
All citizens are directly involved in making laws and running the government
Separation Of Power - Montesquieu
Government divided into parts, and each part had its own purpose