APWH 11 Rome

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currency
Money made of metal or paper that is recognized by merchants and government authority as legal tender for all debts.
plebeians
Members of Rome's lower class.
paterfamilias
Among the Romans, the eldest male, who served as the head of the family estate, including close relatives, slaves, and servants.
Twelve Tables of Rome
Codified laws of the Roman republic. The concept of "innocent until proven guilty" originated with these.
republic
Government where the people elect representatives to vote on their behalf.
Roman Senate
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. It began as an advisory body to kings; it grew to be the primary ruling body during the Roman republic period.
Carthage
Ancient city-state on the north African coast. Known for its Mediterranean trade and its conflicts with Rome.
Punic Wars
Battles between Rome and Carthage.
First Triumvirate
Post-republic Roman government where three people (Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar) shared equal power.
Second Triumvirate
Post-republic Roman government where three people (Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus) shared equal power.
Octavius Caesar
Also known as "Augustus." Roman ruler who declared himself emperor, marking the final end of the Roman republic and beginning the Pax Romana.
Jewish Diaspora
Beginning with Rome's destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., the scattering of Jewish people throughout Europe and western Asia.
Jesus of Nazareth
Jewish philosopher-prophet who founded the principles of Christianity.
Christianity
Religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Teaches that Jesus suffered for the sins of humanity.
Paul
Great missionary of early Christianity. Responsible for the spread of Christianity throughout the Mediterranean Basin until his death (probably by Emperor Nero).
Proconsul
A governor of a province in the Roman Republic appointed for one year by the senate.