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38 terms

AP Psychology Ch.05

Development through the life span
STUDY
PLAY
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimilation
interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
accomodation
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
sensorimotor stage
in Paiget's theory, the stage (birth to 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (2-7 years) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
egocentrism
the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental stages - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughs, and the behaviors these might predict
concrete operational stage
in Paiget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (7 to 11 years old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Paiget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communications, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
self-concept
our understanding and evaluation of who we are
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
menarche
the first menstrual period
preconventional morality
before the age of 9, morality is focused on self-interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain rewards
conventional morality
early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and upholding laws and social rules
postconventional morality
abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, actions are judged "right" because they flow from people's rights or self-defined, basic ethical principles
identity
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
emerging adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
crystalized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement