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biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
in Paiget's theory, the stage (birth to 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
in Piaget's theory, the stage (2-7 years) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental stages - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughs, and the behaviors these might predict
concrete operational stage
in Paiget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (7 to 11 years old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Paiget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communications, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
before the age of 9, morality is focused on self-interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain rewards
early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and upholding laws and social rules
abstract reasoning of formal operational thought, actions are judged "right" because they flow from people's rights or self-defined, basic ethical principles
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
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