Terms in this set (50)

  • Alimentary canal
    is a hollow tube that winds through the ventral body and is open on both ends
  • Alimentary canal's organs
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
  • Mouth
    food enters the digestive tract through a mucous membrane-lined cavity
  • Lips
    protects the mouth's anterior opening
  • Cheeks
    forms the mouth's lateral walls
  • Hard palate
    forms the mouth's anterior roof
  • Soft palate
    forms the mouth's posterior roof
  • Uvula
    is a fleshy projection of the soft palate, which extends inferiorly from the posterior edge of the soft palate
  • Vestibule
    is the space between the lips and cheeks externally and the teeth and gums internally
  • Oral cavity proper
    the area contained by the teeth
  • Tongue
    occupies the floor of the mouth
  • Lingual frenulum
    a fold of mucous membrane, secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements
  • Palatine tonsils
    at the posterior end of the oral cavity are paired masses of lymphatic tissue
  • Lingual tonsil
    covers the base of the tongue
  • Lingual & Palatine tonsils
    The tonsils, along with the lymphatic tissue defend the body. When they become inflamed and enlarged, they partially block the entrance of the throat making it difficult to swallow
  • Mastication
    the act of chewing
  • Oropharynx
    posterior to the oral cavity
  • Laryngopharynx
    is the continuous of the esophagus
  • Pharynx
    the throat
  • Walls of the Pharynx
    consists of two skeletal muscle layers
  • Esophagus
    runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach. It is a passageway that conducts food to the stomach
  • Mucosa
    the innermost layer of the esophagus
  • Submucosa
    is found just beneath the mucosa. It contains blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodules, and lymphatic vessels
  • Muscularis externa
    muscle layer typically made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells
  • Serosa
    outermost layer of the esophagus wall
  • Visceral peritoneum
    single layer of flat serous fluid-producing cells
  • Parietal peritonuneum
    lines the abdominopelvic cavity by the way of a membrane expansion
  • Peritonitis
    a condition of the peritoneum when the peritoneal membranes stick together around the infected site
  • Submucosal & Myenteric nerve plexus
    these nerve fibers help regulate the mobility and secretory activity of GI tract organs
  • Cardioesophageal sphincter
    is where food enters the stomach rom the esophagus
  • Pyloric sphincter
    the pylorus is continuous with the small intestine
  • Rugae
    when the stomach is empty, it collapses inward on itself, and its mucosa is thrown into large folds
  • Greater curvature
    the convex lateral surface of the stomach
  • Lesser curvature
    is the medial surface of the stomach
  • Lesser omentum
    a double layer of peritoneum, extends from the liver to the lesser curvature
  • Greater omentum
    another extension of the peritoneum, drapes downward and covers the abdominal organs
  • Intrinsic factor
    a substance needed for the asorption of vitamin B12 from the small intestine
  • Chief cells
    produce protein-digesting enzymes, mostly pepsinogens and parietal cells produce corrosive hydrochloric acid, which make the stomach contents acidic and activates the enzymes
  • Enteroendocrine cells
    produce local hormones, such as gastrin, that are important to the digestive activities of the stomach
  • Chyme
    a heavy cream that is resembled after food has been processed in the stomach
  • Small Intestine
    is the body's major digestive organ
  • Small intesine: three subdivsions
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  • Ileocecal valve
    The ileum meets, which joins the large and small intestines
  • Pancreatic ducts
    are enzymes that are produced by the pancreas and then ducted into the duodenum where they complete the chemical breakdown of foods in the small intestine
  • Microvilli
    tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the mucosa cells that give the cell surface a fuzzy appearance, sometimes referred to as the brush border
  • Villi
    are fingerlike projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety appearence and feel, much like the soft nap of a towel
  • Lacteal
    within each villus is arich capillary bed and a modified lymphatic capillary
  • Circular folds
    also called plicae circulares are deep folds of both mucosa and submucosa layers. These folds do not disappear when food fills the small intestine
  • Large intestine
    is much larger in diammeter than the small intestine but shorter in length
  • Large intestine: Subdivisions
    cecum appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal