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8 parts of speech and others
Terms in this set (55)
Operates as a subject and a direct object in a sentence;
Name particular persons, places, things, ideas or events;
Latin word nomen=name;
Words that mark nouns (a, the, Chuck's, his, her, this, that, many, several, each, every, and numbers);
not used without nouns
Name someone or something that is different from the subject;
Follows a verb;
Receives the action of the verb;
Tells us who did something and what receives the action of the verb
Always follows the verb;
Precedes the direct object;
Answers the question to whom or to what or for whom or for what something was done
Nouns that follow linking verbs (be, am, is, are, was, were, seem) and rename the subject
means placed before;
Words placed before other words;
Connect nouns or pronouns to other words in sentences
ie: He climbed
up the ladder of success
Up is the preposition, part of a prepositional phrase
Prepositions that are combined with objects;
May appear at the beginning or the end of a sentence;
Function as either adjectives or adverbs
Used in place of nouns;
Eliminate unnecessary and often boring repetition of nouns;
Add needed variety and color to our writing
I, me, you, he, she, it, we, us, they, them
My, mine, ours, they
Emphasize a noun or another pronoun.
ie: The congresswoman
met us at the door
Name a receiver of an action identical with the doer of the action.
ie: David cut
Introduces adjective clauses (contain and function within sentences as or pronouns and as a complete sentence)
Who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, that.
Refer to nonspecific persons or things
All, anyone, somebody, nothing
Who, whom, whose, which, that
Point to nouns
This, that, these, those
Specific nouns that pronouns replace, agree when they are both singular or both plural
singular use - The
rounds (doctor and her are singular)
plural use - The
rounds (doctors and their are both plural)
Essential element of a complete sentence;
Provides action to sentences;
Tells the reader
what is happening
in the sentence;
Easily identifiable if the word has different forms to indicate present and past action;
Has 5 forms
ie: runs, jumps, sits
Modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs;
Answers the questions: When? Where? How? Why? Under what conditions? To what degree?
ie: He walked
he walked. (How did he walk?);
Most words that end in -ly - not all.
Modify or describes nouns or pronouns;
Answers: Which one? What kind of? How many?;
Precedes the words they modify;
May also follow linking verbs in which case they describe the subject.
Set limits and indicate precisely how many persons, places, things, or ideas we have described;
Some, any, that and those indicate whether your reference is indefinite and general or definite and specific
Modify nouns and describe the characteristics and qualities of the specific nouns
Combines two or more words as a single modifier;
When the compound adjective precedes the modified noun, it's hyphenated;
When the compound adjective follows the modified nouns, we don't hyphenate it
ie: He is a well-known professional athlete.
The professional athlete is well known.
Used to join words, phrases, or clauses within sentences;
And, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
Pairs of conjunctions
Either/or, neither/nor, but also, not only
Using the same grammatical construction in lists;
Words to words
Phrases to phrases
Clauses to clauses
Single words or short phrases that modify sentences;
Used in personal writing and advertising to attract attention
Punctuated with an exclamation mark (strong emotion) or a comma (lesser emotion)
Contains both a subject and a verb;
Can stand alone in a complete thought
Begin with either subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns;
Do not contain both a subject and a verb;
Cannot stand alone as a complete thought
The writer expresses only one independent clause.
Contains two or more independent clauses, but no dependent clauses.
The two independent clauses are combined using a coordinating conjunction, a semicolon, or a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.
Can be separated into simple sentences.
Contain one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
Contain two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
Any form of the verb
(am, is, are, was, were, have been) followed by the verbs past participle.;
Adds color and variety to writing;
Should be about 10%-15% in your writing.
Begin sentences with the subject followed by the verb then the completer;
(gets rid of passive voice)
Keeps the sentences from becoming too complicated and wordy.
Should be about 85%-90% in your writing
Treat collective nouns as singular
ie: the committee, XYZ company
The pronoun that follows must also be singular
When we put word clusters between the subject and verb
A type of run-on sentence that occurs when two or more independent clauses are separated by a comma but without an accompanying coordinating conjunction.
Can be repaired by...
..making the clauses two simple sentences
..using a semicolon to separate the clauses
..using a semicolon and a conjunction
..adding a conjunction
Result when an introductory modifier fails to logically modify the subject of the independent clause that follows
Occur when a word or phrase is inserted between the
Infinitives can only be split when the resulting expression is more accurate or more understandable.
Created by a colon or dash that generally follows a complete sentence.
A useful way to convey bad news.
Bad news is placed in an opening (weak) dependent clause followed by the good news in a (stronger) independent clause.
ie: "Although profits are down, morale remains high."
Can be used to bury bad news in the middle
ie: "Our profits, which are down, are only part of the picture."
Comparison of dissimilar things using
Comparing dissimilar things without using
Giving human qualities to an inanimate object
Overstating for dramatic impact
Style of writing;
Often trying to move an idea forward - to a point at which the audience accepts it;
Based on persuasion
Three types include..
1. Appeals to the intellect
2. Appeals to the emotion
3. Appeals to a sense of ethics
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