World Civilization to 1500 Test 1
Terms in this set (94)
Entered into a covenant with the God YHWH. Known for his three main religions: Christianity, Judiasm, and Islam.
Occurred between c. 8000 and 2000 BCE. The period when food gathering changed to food production. AKA the Neolithic Revolution.
Ruled as Egyptian Pharaoh during the New Kingdom (1353-1355 BCE). Known for attempting religious revolution by imposing worship on the sun-disk, being the first monotheist, worshiping Aten, building a capitol at Amarna, and fostering a new style of art.
The first empire and a group belonging to the city of Akkad (2350 BCE). United by many cities under one king Sargon. The Akkadian language became the diplomatic language between governments in Mesopotamia.
Alexander the Great
Son of Philip II. King of Macedonia in northern Greece who ruled between 334 and 323 BCE. Introduced Hellenism by spreading Greek culture across Middle East. Egyptians thought of him as a god. Tutored by Aristotle.
Key figure who promoted YHWH in a specific light. He was monotheistic because of his establishment of YHWH as the one and only God.
Student of Plato. Tutored Alexander the Great and founded a school called the Lyceum. He often questioned the physical world and became responsible for many modern disciplines.
Period in which Jerusalem is captured. Jews were taken from Jerusalem/Judea to Mesopotamia/Babylon. Served under Nebuchadnezzar.
Book of the Dead
Introduced morality into Egyptian religion. Served as a guidepost containing rituals and spells for the journeying spirit. Used by the Egyptians to make extensive preparation for their afterlife.
Located in the Phoenician homeland in modern-day Tunisia and found in c. 800 BCE. Served as a huge center of commerce for Phoenician communities and naval power in the Western Mediterranean. Fell in the third century BCE. AKA the "Shining City."
Group located in modern-day Iraq from 606-536 BCE. Known for their defeating of the Assyrians in in 612 BCE and for holding the Jews captive in Babylon. AKA the "New Babylonian Empire."
Religious leader who taught about the importance of family in the society, ideal of benevolence and compassion, uncertainty of supernatural matters, duty, and public service. His written form was The Analects, which led to a reduction in women's status and rights. AKA in China as "Kongzi."
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols in clay tablets represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes.
Lifestyle involving living a natural life without possessions or human desires. Peace and tranquility was found by not having worldly possessions. Developed by Diogenes and Antisthenes during the Hellenistic era.
Cyrus the Great
Founded and expanded the Persian Empire. Also known for allowing the Jews to return home after he captured Babylon, uniting Persian tribes, finding the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and for defeating Anatolia, the Lydia, and western Greek city-states. Ruled from 550-530 BCE.
Third ruler of Persia from 522-486 BCE. Known for expanding Persian control into the east (Pakistan, Indus Valley) and the west (northern Greece, Europe), adapting Zoroastrianism in his government, and for completing the canal linking the Red Sea and the Nile River.
The last king of Persia before being conquered by Alexander the Great.
A treasury on island Delos in which military funds were collected. Helped finance Athens making Spartans uneasy. Leader: Athens. After the Greeks defeated the Persians the Greeks set up the league to be prepared later militaristically. However it ended up financing Athens, which made sparta upset, starting the Peloponnesian wars.
Greek word meaning "Dispersal", the spreading out of the Jewish population.
Known for being the founder of cynicism. Lived in a tub on the streets in Athens. "Looking for an honest man." Self-sufficiency. Repudiate the artificial.
Alexander was nice to him, and asked what he could give him... His response was, "Could you move out of the sun? You're casting a shadow on me."
Chief sumerian God of wind and breath, written about on many cuneiforms made by Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, and Canaanites.
Epic of Gilgamesh
The earliest surviving literary piece. A flood story about the quest for eternal life and death being inescapable.
Lifestyle involving seeking for pleasure and minimizing pain as the ultimate goal in life. Founded by Luretious. Christians were not found of this lifestyle.
River known for its frequent and irregular flooding that allowed agriculture in the Mesopotamian civilization flourish.
Best known for his code of laws. Such laws included an "eye for an eye" and a "tooth for a tooth." Also was an Amorite ruler from 1792-1750 BCE.
Time in which Greek culture was assimilated into northeastern Africa and western Asia lasting from 330-323 BCE. This occurred after the death of Alexander the Great.
A Spartan slave.
Known as the "Father of History." Came from a Greek community and traveled to Asia and the Mediterranean lands to trace and chronicle the wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire.
The most formidable Mesopotamian state during the Bronze Age. Exploited the metal resources of metal and were the first to create tools and weapons from metal (iron metallurgy). Exhausted both themselves and Egypt after an extensive war.
Group that invaded Egypt during the late Bronze Age from the north and ruled for 200 years. First group to invade Egypt. Jews in Egypt had a friendly relationship with them. They lost status and became servants/suffered persecution.
Written by Homer. Talks about the Battle of Troy and the trojan horse. Key characters include Achilles, Paris, Helen, Hector, Odysseus. Exemplifies the values of the Greeks, cleverness, cunning and so on.
Chinese idea that the state needs to be in control of its people, and those people completely submit to their leaders.
A fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Winds blowing from Central Asia deposit a yellow-brown dust, which gives the Yellow river its hue and name. This made civilizations possible.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interest of his subjects.
The battle in which the Greeks won over the Persians. A Greek man, Pheidippides, ran 26.2 miles from here to Athens to give word of the victory.
Capitol of Egypt from c. 400 BCE to 400 CE. Controlled agriculture and trade. Also a center for metallurgy.
A cult limited to men, popular with Roman soldiers. Associated with sun god Mithras, related to Zoroastrianism, and focused on Mithras the sun God and Ahuramazda's chief lieutenant. Belief in baptism by bull's blood.
Considered the first development of ancient Greece lasting from c. 1600-1150 BCE. Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems, this was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. Left behind thousands of records on clay tablets, containing information on materials and animals in stock, wages of workers, but nothing about politics, social structure, or the name of a single king.
Known for being the first ruler to unite Egypt. Lived and ruled in Upper Egypt around 3200 BCE.
Babylonian king who captured Jerusalem in 586 BCE.
World's longest river, flows northward from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean. Banks of the river support lush vegetation. River was main means of travel and communication with important cities located upstream. Needed river water for agriculture. Flooded regularly. Flows north, but the wind blew south which made it very effective means for transportation.
Capitol of the Assyrian Empire and destroyed in 612 BCE. Cultural center and area for learning. Held a massive library containing 30,000 tablets in cuneiform
Poem written by Homer which chronicled Odysseus's (guy who invented the Trojan horse) journey home from Troy after the Trojan war. It took him twenty years to travel from Troy to Ithaca. His wife Penelope was faithful in the meantime.
Main Egyptian God. Killed by his evil brother Set, and had his parts were scattered all over Egypt. He would become the Egyptian God of the underworld. When you die, you have to appear before this God at the gate. His officials would weigh your heart. If heavier than a feather, you're weighed down with sin, etc.
Reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River and is used as paper.
Battle between Greek city-states Athens and Sparta. Sparta eventually wins and so begins internal conflict within Greece.
Wife who faithfully waits 20 years for the return of Odysseus.
Series of battles involving the Persians against the Greeks. Includes the Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE), the Battle of Marathon (490 BCE), and the Hellenic League (480-479 BCE). Events were chronicled by Herodotus.
Close formation of armored hoplite (Greek) soldiers. Superior to all other military forces for centuries.
Philip of Macedon (Philip II)
Father of Alexander the Great, potentially killed by Alexander's mother Olympias. Prepared Macedonia into a war machine primed to take over. United the greek city-states forcibly and made Macedonia into a military power.
Group that owned much of the Mediterranean coastal plain.
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living in the coasts of modern Lebanon and Syria. They were from major cities like Tyre and Sidon. Known for their seafaring, their dye, their precious purple, and for their development of an alphabet.
A philosopher, student of Socrates, and teacher of Aristotle. Wrote The Republic which contains the cave allegory. Describes perfect government to have an all-knowing or enlightened philosopher king. He didn't think democracy was great because it killed Socrates.
A Greek city-state that had farmland surrounding it. Served as an urban center and was the characteristic form of political organization among the Greeks.
Cyclops that was blinded by Odysseus.
The main inventor of Sophicism. Stated that "man is the measure of all things." Challenged the idea that humans are part of the universe and cosmos, and that instead, everything holds meaning depending on how it relates to man.
Pharaoh of Egypt around when Moses led Israelites out of Egypt. Waged war against the Hittites. A long-lived ruler of New-Kingdom Egypt (1290-1224 BCE). He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt.
Book written by Plato which contains the Allegory of the Cave. Discusses the importance of receiving enlightenment.
Decree written three times, once in each of these languages: Egyptian, Demotic Egyptian, and Greek. Provided a key for understanding Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Battle location where the Greeks finally defeated the Persians. Xerxes led this battle.
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (1766-1045 BCE). Warrior aristocracy. Produced bronze. Defeated by Duke Wu of Zhou. Writing had a similar pattern with cuneiform/hieroglyphics began as pictograms and ideograms. Phonetic sound symbols as well.
Idea that certain knowledge is impossible. Nothing can be proven. Myths and fables are believable. This idea was influenced by the Sophists. Founded by Pyrrho of Elis.
Athenian philosopher (470-399 BCE) known for being the wisest man in Athens (yet claiming he knew nothing), being put on trial for supposedly corrupting youth, teacher of Plato, and being executed by Athens.
Son of David and king of Israel. Responsible for building the Jewish temple.
Founded by Protagorus. Group of skeptics that believed there was no absolute truth. No public objective reality.
Ancient Greek tradegian that wrote 123 plays with only seven surviving in complete form.
Group living in the Greece whose primary focus and entire culture was centered around military training. Won the Peloponnesian War against Athens.
Idea that highest good is achieved by serenity of mind, duty, and self-discipline. Good triumphs over evil. Suffer now and rejoice in the afterlife. Derived from cynicism and was founded by Zeno.
Ancient Mesopotamian city (5500-4000 BCE). It's inhabitants were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture, such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions, taken over by their Semitic successors
Athenian historian known for his account of the Peloponnesian War. Known as the "Father of Scientific History" because he didn't reference the Gods.
King of Assyria who introduced administrative reform. Known for also introducing advanced civil and military systems such as bringing conquered people into fighting as infantry.
River next to the Euphrates that flooded irregularly and sustained life in nearby Mesopotamia.
King of the Gods and God of the sky.
Goddess of women and childbirth.
Goddess of wisdom and organized war.
Goddess of love.
God of the moon, hunting, and chastity.
God of the sun and the arts.
God of war and chaos.
God of thieves and messenger for the Gods.
God of the underworld.
Goddess of fertility and agriculture
God of wine and fertility.
God of fire, metal, and blacksmith.
Ancient Sumerian city-state in Mesopotamia. Birthplace of Abraham and location of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Warring States Period
Zhou dynasty starts to crumble, noblemen fighting Zhou king, less centralized power, less security, eventually falls & Xin empire established (481-221 BC).
King of persia who continued invasion of Greece following the death of Darius I.
River named after the silt (loess) that occupies it. Chinese civilization was developed around this river.
Associated with the feminine, dark, and passive qualities. Used by Chinese to maintain equilibrium of the world.
Associated with the masculine, light, and active qualities. Used by Chinese to maintain equilibrium of the world.
Period in which people took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
A massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.
A Persian theologian known for studying religion but never claiming personal revelation. Monotheistic with Ahuramazda as a supreme god and Ahriman as evil and lies.
Originated in ancient Iran and one of the great religions of the ancient world. Held people to a high ethical standard, and may have influenced Judaism and Christianity. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.