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Sociology 200 Test 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1-4)
Terms in this set (62)
the study of social relationships, social institutions, and society. It explores the influences and consequences of social behavior.
the study of how goods, services, and wealth are produced, consumed, and distributed within societies.
concerned primarily with human mental processes and individual human behavior.
considered either a social science or one of the humanities, is the descriptive study of the past
technically not a social science but is an applied science in which the principles of the social sciences are applied to actual social problems.
a group in which people physically or socially interact
a set of logically and systematically interrelated propositions that explain a particular process or phenomenon
deals with LARGE-SCALE structures and processes, such as broad social categories, institutions, and social systems. (Laws)
concerned with SMALL-SCALE units, such as individuals in small-group interaction
helps individuals cope with the social world by enabling them to step outside their own, personal, self-centered view of the world. By employing the sociological imagination, individual people are forced to perceive, from an objective position, events and social structures that influence behavior, attitudes, and culture.
the study of the physical, biological, social, and cultural development of humans, often on a comparative basis. The two major fields of anthropologists consist of Physical and Cultural (or social) anthropology.
changes in the structure of the society or in its social institutions
Structural Functional Theory
- The theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running. MACRO-LEVEL THEORY.
- Society is made up of interdependent structures each of which performs certain functions for the maintenance of society.
- Manifest and Latent Functions
- Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer
Class Conflict Theory
- The idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general. MACRO-LEVEL THEORY.
- Conflict is a permanent feature of social life and a key source of change.
- Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
- Social Conflict
- Economic inequality
- Carl Marx
Symbolic Interaction Theory
- MICRO-LEVEL THEORY in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivation behind people's action.
- Human beings act toward things based on the meanings they attach to them
- Interaction between people is negotiated through shared symbols, language, gestures, etc.
- Charles Horton Cooley, George H. Mead
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