54 terms

Church: General / Events (pt. I)

1. What is the value of studying church history?
• It assists us in expanding our present and shaping our future by:

1. educating us on the historical roots of our beliefs and circumstances,

2. teaching us to learn from the examples of our predecessors,

3. and helping us to find our place in God's story.
2. How would you define the periods of church history, with years?
• Ancient Church History (c. 100-451)

• Medieval Church History (c. 451-1500)

• The Reformation (1500-1700)

• Modern Church History (1700-Present)
3. What were the "sola's" of the Reformation?
• Sola Scriptura: Scripture alone

• Sola Christo: Christ alone

• Sola Fide: Faith alone

• Sola Gratia: Grace alone

• Sola Deo Gloria: To God alone be the glory
4. Briefly discuss the development of covenant theology.
page 99 in the book
64 Ad. (localized in Rome)
81-96 Ad.
111-113 Ad.
257 Ad.
249-251 Ad. (first systematic general persecution)***
1. Early Church Persecutions and Emperors?
• 64: Nero (localized in Rome)
• 81-96: Domitian
• 111-113: Trajan
• 249-251: Decius (first systematic general persecution)
• 257: Valerian
• 303: Diocletian (worst persecution)
303 Ad. (worst persecution) **!!!?!)@!
Key Dates of the Early Church?
• 70: Destruction of the Jewish Temple

• 313: Constantine's Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity

• 380: Christianity becomes the only official religion of the Roman Empire (Theodosian emperor)
Major Church Councils and Heresies
1. Nicaea:
Arianism / Convened in 325 by Empr. Constantine.

2. Constantinople:
Apollinarianism / Convened in 381 by Empr. Theodosius I.

3. Ephesus:
Nestorianism <::> Pelagianism: /Convened in 431 by Emperor Theodosius II.

4. Chalcedon:
Eutychianism / Convened in 451 by the Eastern Emperor Marcion
Nicene Creed?
1. It was Convened in 325 by Emperor Constantine and condemned Arianism.

2. Arianism: Jesus was a created being (not eternal) who was subordinate to the Father in his essence or being. "There was when he was not."

3. Nicene Creed: Key Language
The Son is "of one substance with the Father" (homoousios) "Begotten, not made"
Constantinople Creed

1. Convened in 381 by Emperor Theodosius I. It dealt decisively with Arianism and condemned Apollinarianism. It also reaffirmed Nicaea, and expanded its teaching on the
Holy Spirit by affirming his Deity.

2.Apollinarianism: Denied that Christ possessed a human soul. The Divine nature occupies the place of the soul in the person of Christ.

3. Continued defense against Arianism led by Athanasius
Expanded the section of the Nicene Creed on the Holy Spirit, affirming his Deity.

Original Nicene Creed only said "I believe in the Holy Spirit."
Creed of Ephesus?
It was Convened in 431 by Emperor Theodosius II. It condemned Nestorianism and Pelagianism.
Chalcedonian Creed?
1. It was Convened in 451 by the Eastern Emperor Marcion. It condemned Eutychianism and composed the Chalcedonian Creed, which established the hypostatic union as orthodox doctrine.


A. Hypostatic Union (2 natures of Christ: Divine and human) Christ possesses a "reasonable soul."

B. The union of Christ's divine and human natures exists "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation."

C. As to his deity, Christ is "of one substance (homoousios) with the Father," but as to his humanity he is "of one substance with us."
Jesus was a created being (not eternal) who was subordinate to the Father in his essence or being.
Denied that Christ possessed a human soul. The Divine
nature occupies the place of the soul in the person of Christ.
believed that the divine and human nature of Christ were two separate persons.
emphasized human free will and moral responsibility, denied original sin, and taught salvation through meritorious obedience.
Denied the human nature of Christ. Taught that the human
nature was absorbed into the divine nature at the incarnation.
Name other Major Heretical Movements?
1. Antinomianism:
2. Docetism:
3. Ebionites:
4. Marcionism:
5. Gnosticism:
6. Donatism:
7. Manichaenism:
8. Monarchianism:
What is Antinomianism?
Denies the need to obey the OT law. Was a popular component of Gnosticism, and has persisted in various forms down through the centuries.
What is Docetism?
heresy of the early church that denied Jesus had come in the flesh.

1. Jesus only seemed to be a man, but was truly a pure spirit-being uncontaminated by the material world. Thus Jesus did not truly "die" on the cross.

2.Docetism was present as early as the 1st century, was combated by the apostle John in 1 Jn. 4:2, and became an important aspect of Gnosticism.
Who are Ebionites?
Jewish Christians in the 1st - 4th centuries who denied the preexistence of Christ and believed the entire OT law was necessary for salvation.
What is Marcionism?
A. 2nd century heresy that taught a strong distinction between vengeful God of the OT and the God of the NT, and only accepted a reduced NT canon. Marcion formed a
separate church that became a rival to orthodox churches.

B. Some aspects of Marcionism were similar to Gnosticism, in that it taught Jesus was not born into the material world, but merely appeared at age 29. His sufferings were
only apparent, not real.
What is Gnosticism?
A group of heresies, primarily in the 2nd century, that taught a radical dualism between the physical and the spiritual, proclaimed salvation through knowledge, and had a docetic view of Christ.

1. Matter is false and evil, and it must be rejected in favor of spirit.

2. Jesus was a teacher who revealed the secret knowledge necessary for salvation.

3. Most famous form is represented by Valentinus.

4. Works include Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Philip, and Gospel of Truth.

5. Major opponents included Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Epiphanius.
What is Donatism?
> Fourth century North Africans who started a separate church, and highly emphasized holiness and the purity of the visible church. Primary opponent was Augustine.

> Donatism started after the persecutions of Diocletian, when the Donatists refused to accept back into the church those who had poured a libation to the emperor or had
forfeited Bibles to be burned.
What is Manichaenism?
Third century form of Gnosticism founded by Mani, which continued for several centuries. Augustine was an adherent for a time, and then became a vigorous
What is Monarchianism?
Third century heresy that stresses the oneness of God to such an extent that it denies the personal distinctiveness of the Son and Holy Spirit.


1. Dynamic Monarchianism: The Father alone is God, and the Son was merely a man who was specially endowed with the Holy Spirit.

2. Modalism/Sebellianism: God is 1 person who appears in THREE different modes: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
The Great Schism?
Division between the Eastern and Western Church in 1054.
Reason for the split in the Great Schism?
The reason for the split are three fold:

1. Intellectual Alienation: the Greek-speaking East and Latin-speaking West came at theology from such different perspectives that they were no longer able to understand each other.

2. Papal Authority: the West asserted that the Pope was Peter's successor and therefore should rule over the entire church. The East rejected this.

3. The Filioque Controversy: the West added the word "filioque" (and the Son) to the Nicene Creed, stating that the Holy Spirit "proceeds from the Father and
the Son." The East rejected this.
The Crusades?
series of military offensives from Europe into Muslim lands between 1095-1204.
What were the goals of the Crusades?
1. Retake the Holy Land

2. Save Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire from Muslim threat

3.Reunite the Eastern and Western Churches

4. Earn salvation: Popes promised the forgiveness of sins for those who participated in the Crusades.

o The first three goals were all accomplished temporarily, but none permanently.
Babylonian Captivity?
A period during the 14th century in which 6 consecutive popes, all French, resided in Avignon, France rather than Rome.
The Reformation?
> 16th and 17th century movement to reform the Christian church in response to its theological and moral decay, which led to a formal break between Catholics and

> Stressed salvation by grace through faith alone, the ultimate authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers.

o Began on Oct. 31, 1517 when Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door at Wittenberg. Continued through the 16th and 17th centuries.

o Major reformers were Martin Luther, John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli.
What is the Marburg Colloquy?
meeting between Luther and Zwingli in 1529 to resolve their differences regarding the Lord's Supper, which was unsuccessful.

o Luther: consubstantiation: Christ is physically present "in, with and under" the elements. The Lord's Supper is a means of grace that strengthens faith.

o Zwingli: memorial: Christ is in no way present in the elements. The Lord's Supper is an act of remembering Christ, not a means of grace.
What is the Counter-Reformation?
It was the 16th century reform of the Catholic Church and counter-offensive in response to the Reformation. The three primary means were the Council of Trent, the Jesuits, and the Inquisition.

1. Council of Trent: Met from 1545-1563, and laid the groundwork for modern Catholicism.

2. Jesuits: Educators and missionaries who were largely responsible for the Catholic Church taking back much of the ground it lost to Protestants.
• Society of Jesus
• Founded by Ignatius of Loyola

3. The Inquisition: The Catholic Church's systematic fight against heretics through trial and punishment.

•Primary inquisitions against Protestants were in Italy & Spain.
What is the Thirty Years' War?
17th century war, fought primarily in Germany, which involved most of the countries in Europe. The initial cause of the conflict was the divided allegiance to Catholicism vs. Protestantism in various German territories. But there were many complex political factors that contributed as well.

1. The most devastating European war before the 20th century.

2. Historical context: the Peace of Augsburg stipulated that a territory's allegiance to Catholicism or Protestantism would be chosen by its ruler. This was a poor solution
that prevented many subjects from worshiping according to their beliefs.

3. Results: the war essentially ended in a stalemate. All people in Germany, rulers as well as subjects, were granted the freedom to be Catholics or Protestants.

4. Worldview Ramifications: the enormous conflict over religious beliefs precipitated a spirit of toleration, and was a main contributor to the growing indifference to religion throughout Europe. This set the stage for the Enlightenment.
What is the Heidelberg Catechism?
16th century catechism composed in Heidelberg, Germany that teaches the doctrines of the Reformation.

1. Commissioned by Prince Fredrick III

2. Primary authors were Olevianus and Ursinus, along with the rest of their theological faculty.
What is the Belgic Confession?
16th century Reformed confession written in the Netherlands.

o Protested persecution by Catholics, and sought to prove that adherents to the Reformed faith were not rebels, but law-abiding citizens who held to true biblical
Second Helvitic Confession?
16th century confessional statement of the Swiss Reformed
Church, written by Bullinger, that presents Calvinism as historic evangelical Christianity.
Canons of Dort?
17th century document, composed by the Synod of Dort in the Netherlands, which presents the 5 points of Calvinism in response to the Remonstrance.

o The Synod of Dort met from 1618-1619 to resolve the dispute between Calvinism and Arminianism that had arisen in the Netherlands.

o The Synod was composed of delegates from many countries.
The Westminster Assembly?
An assembly primarily composed of Puritans that met from
1643-1647 to advise the Long Parliament on reforming the Church of England along Puritan and Presbyterian lines. Produced the Westminster Standards.

o Most of their work was undone with the restoration of the monarchy.

o But the Westminster Standards became the greatest and most influential Reformed confession and catechisms.
17th century response to dead orthodoxy in German Lutheranism. Emphasized experientialism, the Bible, holiness, and church reform.

o Major figures include Zinzendorf and Philip Jacob Spenser.
Marrow Controversy?
17th century controversy in the Church of Scotland over the
relationship between the law and the gospel in the conversion process.
First Great Awakening?
Movement of revival in America from 1735 to 1743.
o Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield
o Revival of Calvinism
Second Great Awakening?
Movement of revival in America from 1795 to 1830.

o Charles Finney (evangelist), Nathaniel Taylor (Yale divinity prof.)

o More Arminian, emphasizing the use of means in the conversion process

o A major source of fundamentalism
Vatican I?
Council convened by Pope Pius IX in 1869-1870, which defined Catholic beliefs concerning the relationship between God, faith and reason, and sanctioned the doctrine of papal infallibility.

o Papal Infallibility: the magisterium (doctrinal authority) of the pope is infallible when he is exercising his office as pastor and teacher of all Christians.
Vatican II?
Council convened by Pope John XXIII between 1962-1965 to bring renewal to the Catholic Church.

o Mass was to be in the vernacular, rather than Latin

o Promoted the authority of Scripture, and increased its use in liturgy and the education of clergy

o Acknowledged Protestants and Greek Orthodox as fellow Christians
Auburn Affirmation?
A document issued in 1924 by liberal Presbyterian ministers that argued for toleration of a wide variety of views in the church as a means to maintaining unity.

o The affirmation was a major event in the fundamentalist/liberal controversy of the early 20th century.
What were some good things that happened during the modern period, particularly the 19th and 20th centuries?
Modern Missions, and the spread of the gospel in Africa, Asia and South America.
Give three important events in the history of missions, and why they were important?
o St. Patrick taking the gospel to Ireland in the 5th century. Ireland served as a base for missionary activity to neighboring areas, including Scotland and England.

o William Carey's 19th century mission to India, which is credited as starting the modern missionary movement.

o European Colonialism, which provided the conditions under which missionaries could take the gospel to foreign countries in the 19th century.