A group of heresies, primarily in the 2nd century, that taught a radical dualism between the physical and the spiritual, proclaimed salvation through knowledge, and had a docetic view of Christ.
1. Matter is false and evil, and it must be rejected in favor of spirit.
2. Jesus was a teacher who revealed the secret knowledge necessary for salvation.
3. Most famous form is represented by Valentinus.
4. Works include Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Philip, and Gospel of Truth.
5. Major opponents included Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Epiphanius.