151 terms

Chapters 6 and 7

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The Gilded Age
Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel, the title of which became the popular name for the period from the end of the Civil war to the turn of the century. It was a depiction of widespread political corruption and personal greed. The idea was that the top layer was gilded with gold but underneath everything was bad and corrupted.
political machine
organized group that controlled the activites of a political party in a city
precinct captains
people at the bottom of the political machine pyramid. worked to gain voters' support on a city block or in a neighborhood; reported to a ward boss
ward boss
at election time, worked to secure the vote in all the precincts in the ward, or electoral district. Helped the poor and gained their votes by doing favors or providing services
ward
electoral district
city/political boss
contolled the activites of the political party throughout the city
Roscoe Conkling
political boss in New York that used his power to build parks, sewer systems, and waterworks, and gave money to schools, hospitals, and orphanage. Also, provided government support for new businesses
naturalization
process of attaining full citizenship
"Big Jim" Pendergast
Irish-American saloonkeeper who worked his way up from precinct captain to Democratic city boss in Kansas City by aiding immigrants in his ward
graft
illegal use of political influence for personal gain
kickback
portion of money paid back to the machine after billing the city more for a project
William M. "Boss" Tweed
head of Tammany Hall, NYC Democratic political machine; led Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicans, in defrauding the city
Tammany Hall
powerful NYC Democratic political machine
Tweed Ring
group of corrupt politicans in NYC; involved in NY County Courthouse construction scheme
Thomas Nast
political cartoonist who helped arouse public outrage against Tammany Hall's graft
patronage
giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected
spoils system
policy of patronage known by Andrew Jackson's administration
merit system
policy for hiring that eliminated patronage
civil service
government administration jobs
Rutherford B. Hayes
republican president that tried to convince Congress to support the civil service reform. When turned down resorted to other means. He named independents to his cabinets and set up a commission to investigat the nation's customhouses. When he got the commission's report back, Hayes fired two top officials of NYC customhouse, upsetting Conklings supporters(Stalwarts)
Stalwarts
Roscoe Conkling's supporters
James A. Garfield
independent presidential candidate from Ohio. Was shot by Charles Guiteau and died before he became president.
Chester A. Arthur
Republican V-P to Garfield. Became president after Garfield was assasinated. His first message to Congress urged legislators to pass a civil service law
Charles Guiteau
shot James A. Garfield
Pendleton Civil Service Act
authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates' performance on an examination
Grover Cleveland
Democratic president that tried to lower tariff rates, but Congress refused to support him
Benjamin Harrison
beat Cleveland in reelection; supported higher tariffs. Signed McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs on manufactured goods to their highest level yet
McKinley Tariff Act
raised tariffs on manufactured goods to their highest level yet
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
bill that lowered tariff, but was not signed because it also included a federal income tax
William McKinley
became president after the Wilson-Gorman tariff and raised tariffs once again
urbanization
growth of cities
americanization movement
designed to assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominant culture; social campaign was sponsored by the government and by citizens. Provided programs to teach immigrants skills needed for citizenship
two houses
1. buy a house on the outskirts of town, where they would have to face transportation problems
2. rent cramped rooms in a boardinghouse in the central city
tenements
multifamily urban dwellings
dumbbell tenements
cheap housing unites in cities that looked line dumbbells
mass transit
transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes, enabled workers to go to and from jobs more easily
Social Gospel Movement
preached salvation through service to the poor
settlement houses
community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants
Jane Addams
founded the Hull House, settlement house. Also, an anti-war activist
Ellen Gates Starr
with Jane Addams founded Chicago's Hull House
Hull House
settlement house in Chicago
Janie Porter Barett
founded Locust Street Social Settlement in Hampton, Virginia
Locust Street Social Settlement
first settlement house for African Americans
Andrew Carnegie
Son of a poor family that became one of the first industrial moguls to make his own fortune; Carnegie Steel
Carnegie's Strategies
1. continually searched for ways to make better products more cheapy
2. hired talented people by offering stock and benefits; encouraged competition
*tryed to control the whole steel industry
vertical integration
process in which the suppliers are bought out in order to control the raw materials and transportation system
horizontal integration
buying out or merging all companies that produce similar products
social darwinism
theory that some individuals of a species flourish and pass their traits along to the next generation, while others so not. also explains how the process of "natual selection" weeded out less-suited individuals and enabled the best-adapted to survive
Charles Darwin
Philospher who came up with the theory of social darwinism and wrote the book On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
Charles Darwin's book that explained the theory of social darwinism
Herbert Spencer
english philosopher who used Darwin's biological theories to explain the evolution of human society
laissez faire
"allow to do" doctrine that states that the marketplace should not be regulated by the federal government
William G. Sumner
Yale professor that promoted the theory of laissez faire and that success and failure in business were governed by natural law and that no one had the right to intervene
monopoly
when a firm buys out all its competitors to achieve complete control over its industry's production, wages, and prices
J.P. Morgan
head banker of United States Steel that was one of the most successful holding companies
United States Steel
one of the most successful holding companies
Carnegie Steel
Steel company created by Andrew Carnegie. Produced the largest portion of the nation's steel
John D. Rockefeller
Established Standard Ol of Ohio. He joined competing companies in trust greements
Trustees
people that ran the separate companies as one large corporation
Standard Oil of Ohio
oil company established by John D. Rockefeller which used trust to gain total control of the oil industry in america
Robber Barons
people who used the tactic of paying employees low wages and driving out competitors by selling product at a lower price than it cost to produce. Then, when the market was controlled, hiking up prices; Rockefeller
philanthropists
giving away money for a good cause
Rockefeller Foundation
establishment that provided funds to found the University of Chicago, and created a medical institute that helped cure yellow fever
Sherman Antitrust Act
made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries
capital
money for investments
sweatshops
A factory or workshop, esp. in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions
Jacob Riis
Personal voice of the sweatshops
National Labor Union
first large scale labor union
William H. Sylvis
formed the National Labor Union
Colored National Labor Union
group of african american laborers that were not allowed to join the National Labor Union
Uriah Stephens
founded the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
"an injury to one is the concern of all." supported equal pay and equal work for all. saw strikes, or refusals to work, as a last resort
strikes
refusals to work
Samuel Gompers
President of the American Federation of Labor. Also led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft unions
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management, to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions. Used strikes as a major tactic
Eugene V. Debs
felt unions should include all laborers; American Railway Union (ARU)
American Railway Union
Union formed of unskilled AND skilled workers
Socialism
economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth
Karl Marx
communist German philosopher
Industrial Workers of the World/Wobblies
Radical unionists and socialists group that formed to try to achieve better conditions for workers
William "Big Bill" Haywood
Head of the Wobblies
Great Strike of 1877
workers of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad struck to protest their second wage cut in two months. Thw work stoppage spread to other lines. After state governors asked President Rutherford B. Hayes to intervene, saying that the strikers were impeding interstate commerce, federal troops ended the strike
Haymarket Affair
People gathered at Chicago's Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. Bomb was thrown at police line and police fired at workers (caused public to turn against the labor movement)
Carnegie Steel Homestead Plant
steel plant created by Carnegie that produced most of the United States Steel
Henry Clay Frick
President of Carnegie Steel Company's Homestead plant
Pinkerton Detective Agency
Hired by Frick to protect the steel plant
Pullman Strike
company laid off many employees and cut wages of the rest. strike was called in the spring of 1894
Panick of 1893
closing and bankcrupcy of many businesses caused by the economy
arbitration
negotiation with strikers
boycott
to refuse to use of by a product from a certain business
strikebreakers
people who were hired to end strikes
blacklist
list of people that other employeers could see so that they could never agian get railroad jobs
Mary Harris Jones
prominent organizer in the women's labor movement. organized the United Mine Workers of America
United Mine Workers of America
formed by Jones for rights of miners
Pauline Newman
first female organizer of the International Ladies' Garment Worker's Union, also supported "Uprising of the 20,000" because she was a former garment worker and the strike won labor agreements for strikers
International Ladies Garment Workers' Union
formed by Pauline Newman. labor union for garment workers'
"uprising of 20,000"
strike that won labor agreements and improved working conditions for some strikers
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
fire at a garment factory. The fire spread through oil-soaked machines engulfing the 8th-9th-10th floors. When workers tried to flee, all doors were locked but one. The door that was unlocked was blocked by fire. 146 women died
"yellow-dog contracts"
in attempt to keep workers from rebelling, employeers had to start sign contracts saying that they wouldn't strike, picket line, or boycott
push factors
primary motives for emigration from the country of origin
pull factors
positive factors for immigrating to a country
national reclamation act (1902)
encouraged the irrigation of arid land, created new farmland in western states and drew mexican farm workers northward
steerage
cheap accommodatinos in a ship's cargo; traveled by immagrants
Castle Garden
one of the inspection centers in New York that the immagrants first came to
Ellis Garden
inspection center, originally Caste Garden but later moved here
Angel Island
west coast inspection center located in San Franciso Bay
Alien
foreign national who has entered the U.S.
resident alien
foreigner who is a permanent resident of the country
illegal alien
foreign national who has entered the U.S. without legal permission
immigrant vs. emigrant
immigrant comes to a country; emigrant leaves a country
culture shock
personal disorientation that a person may feel when experiencing an undamiliar way of a culture
melting pot
mix of people and cultures
salad bowl
metaphor for different cultures together in one area
nativism
overt favoritism toward native born americans
Prescott F. Hall
founder of the immagration restriction league
immigration restriction league
group of nativists that thought that problems were caused by immigrants from the "wrong" countries
american protective association
nativist group that launched vicious anti-catholic attacks
literacy test
test for immigrants; for those who couldn't read 40 words of English were refused entry
workingmen's party
headed anit-chinese movements because asians were taking jobs
chinese exclusion act
law passed by congress which banned entry to all chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials
gentleman's agreement
agreement with Japan to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U.S. in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order
Pullman, Illinois
A town designed by George M Pullman for the employees of his railroad car factories.
George M. Pullman
The owner of a railroad car company, and designer of Pullman, Illinois, a town for his workers.
Promontory, Utah
The site of the completion of the first transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869
Transcontinental Railroad
A railroad spanning the entire nation
C.F. Dowd
Professor who proposed dividing the world into 24 time zones. The U.S. would contain 4 of them. His process of unifying time would be called "railroad time"
Railroad Time
The idea of dividing the earth into 24 time zones and the U.S. into four
Credit Mobilier
Scandalous company created by Union Pacific Railroad insiders, it distributed shares of its stock to Congressmen to avoid detection of the actions they were taking (using their influence to gain profit on the substances used to make railroads)
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Short Hauls vs. Long Hauls
Railroads were abusing the farmers by charging more for _______ than ________. In response, the farmers in the Grange began to become politically active.
Granger Laws
Laws pushed through by the Grangers and their supported political representatives. Usually benefited the Grangers by increasing control and regulations on the railroads.
Munn vs. Illinois
The famous Supreme Court case involving governments passing of the Granger Laws. The railroads stated they were unconstitutional so they sued the states. This case ruled that the government had the ability to regulate private business for the benefit/to protect the rights of the public.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
Act that created a five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states, specifically trains
Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
*factors that led to the industrial revolution
1) A wealth of natural resources 2)government support for business
3)A growing urban population that provided both cheap labor and fresh markets for new products
kerosene
Used to light lamps, able to be used after being distilled from oil or coal
Edwin Drake
Successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil, making removing oil from beneath the earths surface practical
gasoline
A byproduct of the distillation of kerosene. Was often thrown away by producers.
Bessemer Process
Henry Bessemer (UK) and William Kelly (US) developed this process which removed carbon from iron by pumping air through the molten iron. Using this process, steel was formed.
Henry Bessemer
The British manufacturer who, along with William Kelley, created the Bessemer Process making it much easier to make steel from iron
William Kelly
The American ironmaker who, along with Henry Bessemer, created the Bessemer Process making it much easier to make steel from iron
*new uses for steel
Steel could now be used for bridges, higher towers, train tracks, barbed wire, farm machines... and much more!
barbed wire
Was significant because it marked the end of the open west. Along with many farm machines, this helped to transform the plains into the food producer of the nation
farm machines
Along with barbed wire, this helped to transform the plains into the food producer of the nation
Brooklyn Bridge
A bridge who was very remarkable because it spanned a large river and utilized steel cables.
George Westinghouse
Added inventions to those of Thomas Edison making elctricity safer and less expensive
*first skyscraper
Home Insurance Building
Thomas Alva Edison
became the pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he perfected the incandescent light bulb and invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.
*changes brought about by electricity
Worldwide communication, lighting of factories leading to longer working hours (more hours of light), made urban travel cheap, saved much time.
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone opening the way for worldwide communications.