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62 terms

Church Hist: Definitions / People (Pt. 2)

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Apologists?
writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries whose work primarily answers the accusations of non-Christians. Includes Justin Martyr, among others.
Montanism?
2nd century movement that emphasized continuing revelation and asceticism. Tertullian became an adherent.
Alexandrian School?
allegorical school of interpretation in the ancient church, which was centered in Alexandria. Key members include Clement of Alexandria and Origen.
Antiochene School?
more literal school of interpretation in the ancient church that was centered in Antioch. Key members include Chrysostom.
Cappadocian Fathers?
4th century men who are especially known for their opposition to Arianism and their theology of the Holy Spirit. Includes Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa.
Monasticism?
movement that became popular after the conversion of Constantine and thrived in the middle ages, in which people withdrew from society into communities that stressed prayer, work, study, charity, and asceticism.

• "The Life of St. Anthony" by Athanasius helped popularize monasticism

THE REST OF THE ANSWER 106.
Scholasticism?
Medieval theological movement that used Aristotelian logic to create a theological system, and embraced reason as a path to knowledge.

• Famous scholastics include Anselm, Peter Abelard, Peter Lumbard, and Thomas Aquinas.

• 3 important aspects of scholasticism:
1. Embraced reason as a path to knowledge

2. Explored the relationship between Scripture and
non-Christian theology, especially Aristotle

3. Used a dialectical method of writing, teaching and
organizing thought
Who were the Famous scholastics?
Anselm, Peter Abelard, Peter Lumbard, and Thomas Aquinas.
Humanism?
Movement that arose during the Renaissance and extended into the early Reformation that emphasized the value of human individuals and cultures, and encouraged study of the humanities: art, literature, languages, history, etc.

• The greatest humanist was Erasmus

• Humanism exercised great influence on the Reformers, and is one of the major reasons they stressed studying the Scriptures in the original languages.
Radical Reformation?
Movement that arose during the Reformation which emphasized separation of church and state and the experience of regeneration over forensic justification, and rejected infant baptism. Wanted the Reformation to move quicker than it was.
Augsburg Confession?
16th century summary of the Lutheran faith written by Philip Melanchthon, and presented to Emperor Charles V.
Second Helvetic Confession?
16th century creedal statement of the Swiss Reformed Church, written by Bullinger, which presents Calvinism as Evangelical Christianity.
Puritanism?
Movement that sought to purify the church of England in the 17th century, especially reacting to the form of Anglican worship. Key Puritans include John Owen and Richard Baxter.
Socinianism?
Heresy of the 16th - 18th centuries, created by Socinus, which rejected the deity of Christ, his atoning death, and the foreknowledge of God. Taught that Jesus was merely a good teacher and example.

• A forerunner of modern Unitarianism and Open Theism.
Modernism?
A 19th and 20th century theological movement which centers on adapting Christian ideas to modern culture and thought, which emphasizes reason over Scripture as the ultimate source of knowledge.

• Originated in 19th century Germany, and spread to Britain and the US.

• Major proponents include Kant, Schleiermacher, Hegel, Wellhausen, and Fosdick.

• Pioneered higher criticism as a hermeneutical method.

• Characterized by idealism, optimism, and an emphasis on ethics. Society is moving toward the realization of the kingdom of God, which will be an ideal ethical state of human perfection.

• Emphasizes God's immanence over his transcendence. God is present in the world in all parts of life, not elevated above the world as a transcendent being.

o Thus God's presence is disclosed in reason, art and
moral goodness, not just through Scripture.
Fundamentalism?
20th century reaction to liberalism in American Christianity that sought to reaffirm Christian Orthodoxy.

• Key proponent was J. Gresham Machen
• Focus on propagating the fundamentals of the Christian faith:
o Inerrancy of Scripture
o Deity of Christ
o The virgin birth
o The historicity of biblical miracles
o Substitutionary atonement
o Jesus' bodily resurrection and return
Neo-Orthodoxy?
20th century theological movement that reacted to liberalism by returning to a more orthodox view of sin, grace and faith, but retained a belief that Scripture was fallible.

• Key proponents were Karl Barth and Emil Brunner.
• Emphasized the transcendence of God and the
centrality of Christ.
Apostolic Fathers
writers of the 1st and 2nd centuries who are traditionally thought to have come in contact with the apostles.

1. Clement of Rome: 1st - 2nd century bishop of Rome who wrote a letter to Corinth, and is mentioned in Philippians.

2. Ignatius: 2nd century bishop of Antioch who wrote a series of letters to churches in Asia Minor on his way to Rome for martyrdom.

3. Polycarp: 2nd century bishop of Smyrna, disciple of John, early Christian Martyr, wrote an Epistle to the Philippians
Marcion
2nd century heretic who distinguished between the Gods of the OT and NT, rejected the OT and issued his own edited canon of the NT, organized a church that rivaled the orthodox churches, and had some teachings similar to Gnosticism.
Justin Martyr?
2nd century apologist who wrote 2 apologies and "Dialogue with Trypho," defending the Christian faith in terms that were acceptable to Greek philosophy by synthesizing it with Platonism.
Celcus?
2nd century opponent of Christianity later refuted by Origen
Irenaeus?
2nd century bishop of Lyons, wrote Against Heresies against Gnosticism.
Tertullian?
2nd - 3rd century theologian, wrote Apology and Against Marcion, wrote about the Trinity, became a Montanist.
Clement of Alexandria?
2nd-3rd century theologian, wrote Stromateis, Platonist
Cyprian?
3rd century bishop of Carthage, wrote The Unity of the Church, high view of the church, taught that baptism can only be performed by the one Catholic church?
Origen?
3rd century Alexandrian theologian who was a pioneer in allegorical interpretation, and wrote the apology Against Celcus, the first systematic theology First Principles, and the Hexapla.
Eusebius?
3rd - 4th century bishop of Caesarea who wrote the first church history.
Athanasius?
4th century theologian who opposed Arianism. Wrote On the Incarnation and Life of Anthony.
Constantine?
4th century Emperor who legalized Christianity and called the Council of Nicaea.
Epiphanius?
4th century bishop of Salamis, wrote Panarion against all heresies known up to his day.
Chrysostom?
4th - 5th century bishop of Constantinople known for his preaching, exiled for opposing imperial and church politics.
Jerome?
4th- 5th century theologian who translated the Latin Vulgate.
Pelagius?
4th-5th century heretic who emphasized human free will and moral responsibility, denied original sin, and taught salvation through meritorious obedience. His chief opponent and critic was Augustine.
Augustine?
4th - 5th century bishop of Hippo, who was one of the most influential theologians in the history of the church. Wrote many works, including Confessions and City of God.

• In opposition to the Manichaens, Donatists and Pelagians, Augustine taught that salvation was only by the grace of God, emphasizing original sin, divine election and baptismal
regeneration.
St. Patrick?
5th century missionary who brought Christianity to Ireland.
Gregory the Great?
6th-7th century Pope whose reign inaugurated the middle ages and who greatly increased the power of the papacy. Wrote Pastoral Rule.
Anselm?
11th-12th century theologian who pioneered the ontological proof for God and the satisfaction theory of the atonement.

• Most important works are Faith Seeking Understanding (ontological proof for God), and Why God Became Man (satisfaction theory).

• The greatest theologian between Augustine and the Reformers (1000 years).
Bernard of Clairvaux?
12th century theologian who was the official preacher of the 2nd Crusade.
• Opposed Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard?
12th century scholastic theologian who pioneered the moral influence theory of the atonement.
What is the Moral influence theory?
*(I love you this much... kill Jesus... nothing else)*

Christ's death was a demonstration of God's love that moves us to love God in return and respond with obedience. Thus the result of Christ's death is purely subjective; it only accomplishes something in us.
Peter Lombard?
12th century scholastic theologian who wrote the Book of Sentences, which became the standard systematic theology textbook for centuries.

• Was one of the first to insist on there being 7 sacraments
Francis of Assisi?
12th-13th century founder of the Franciscan Order. Wrote the hymn Canticle of Brother Son.
Thomas Aquinas?
13th century scholastic theologian who used the dialectical method (Aristotelian logic) to write the massive systematic theology Summa Theologeia. Arguably the greatest Catholic theologian after Augustine.

• Dominican monk

• Taught at the University of Paris
John Duns Scotus?
13th-14th century theologian who taught at Oxford, the University of Paris and Cologne. His division between faith and reason influenced William of Ockham.
William of Ockham?
13th-14th century theologian who adhered to a division between faith and reason, and created "Ockham's Razor": whatever can be done in fewer assumptions is done in vain with more.

• As a Nominalist, Ockham advocated the study of specifics over universal concepts.
Wycliffe?
14th century British theologian who first translated the Bible into English.

• Taught at Oxford.

• Opposed sacramental soteriology, ceremonialism and papal authority.

• Advocated the Bible as the ultimate authority over church tradition, and taught salvation by grace and divine election.

• Often called the morning star of the Reformation.
Hus?
14th-15th century theologian who attacked clerical abuses and papal authority, and emphasized the priesthood of all believers and the importance of preaching the Word of God. He was burned at the stake for his views.

• Highly influenced by Wycliffe.
Erasmus?
The leading humanist of the 16th century, who wanted to reform the church through scholarship. Produced a new Latin translation of the NT, and wrote Diatribe on Free Will as a polemic against Martin Luther's theology, to which Luther responded with Bondage of the Will.
Luther?
16th century German theologian whose work was the primary catalyst for the Reformation. Recovered the doctrines of justification by faith, the ultimate authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers.

• Wrote the 95 Theses, Commentary on Galatians, and Bondage of the Will

• Founded the Lutheran church
• Believed in consubstantiation
• Taught at the University of Wittenberg
• Augustinian monk
Philip Melanchthon?
16th century associate of Luther who systematized Luther's work in the Augsburg Confession and Loci Communes.
Zwingli?
16th century Swiss reformer. Disputed with the Anabaptists, and taught a "memorial" view of the Lord's Supper.
Calvin?
16th century reformer who was born in France, and ministered in Geneva, Switzerland. The founder of modern Reformed theology, and author of Institutes of the Christian Religion.
• Born in France
• Ministered in Geneva for two years, then exiled
• Lived in Strasbourg for 3 years, where he was
influenced by Martin Bucer
• Returned to Geneva, where he ministered for the
remaining 23 years of his life.

• Major theological contributions include the Holy Spirit, Presbyterian polity, covenant theology, and the Spiritual presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
Knox?
16th century Scottish reformer, who led the reformation of the Scottish church, and was heavily influential in the development of Presbyterian worship. Wrote the Scots Confession and the Book of Discipline.
Covenanters?
group of Scots who signed the 17th century National Covenant, protesting the English monarchy's imposition of Episcopal church government and the Book of Common Prayer upon Scotland.
Arminius?
17th century Dutch theologian who founded Arminianism.
Amyraut and the School of Sumur (Amyraldianism)?
17th century Reformed theologian and school that
attempted to synthesize the Calvinist view of divine election with the Arminian view of unlimited atonement.
Richard Baxter?
17th century Puritan and author of The Reformed Pastor.
Count Zinzendorf?
17th century pietist and founder of the Moravian Church.
William Carey?
18th-19th century missionary to India who has been dubbed "the father of modern missions."
George Muller?
19th century founder of a British orphanage.
Charles Finney?
19th century evangelist and leader of the second Great Awakening, whose methods and theology departed from traditional Reformed practices, and unfortunately exerted a great influence over revivalism and 20th century fundamentalism.
D.L. Moody?
19th century evangelist, preacher, and founder of Moody Bible Institute.