A 19th and 20th century theological movement which centers on adapting Christian ideas to modern culture and thought, which emphasizes reason over Scripture as the ultimate source of knowledge.
• Originated in 19th century Germany, and spread to Britain and the US.
• Major proponents include Kant, Schleiermacher, Hegel, Wellhausen, and Fosdick.
• Pioneered higher criticism as a hermeneutical method.
• Characterized by idealism, optimism, and an emphasis on ethics. Society is moving toward the realization of the kingdom of God, which will be an ideal ethical state of human perfection.
• Emphasizes God's immanence over his transcendence. God is present in the world in all parts of life, not elevated above the world as a transcendent being.
o Thus God's presence is disclosed in reason, art and
moral goodness, not just through Scripture.