The Foundations of Ancient Civilization (Pre-history- c. 300 B.C.)

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Terms in this set (...)

Prehistory
Period of time before people invented writing.
Historians
People who study and write about how people lived.
Artifacts
Objects made by humans to learn details about their past (clothing, coins, pottery, tools, artwork)
Primary Sources
A first hand record of a historical event created by an eyewitness who actually experienced the event
Secondary Sources
Source of information that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions. (Professional interpretation of a primary source)
Anthropology
Study of the origins and development of people and their society
Anthropologists
People that study cultures of civilizations
Culture
Includes beliefs, values and practices
Archaeology
Study of pat people and culture through their material remains (artifacts)
Archaeologists
Study building and artifacts to gain a scene of how people functioned as a society. Theories are constantly being revised based on new evidence
Political Science
Study matters concerning the distribution and transfer of power in decision making, roles and systems of governing including specific governments political behavior and public policies. They measure the success of government, stability, justice, wealth, peace and public health
Economics
The study of choice under scarcity. How people use their resources, the study of decision making. The economy is the system for coordinating the production and distribution of goods and services.
Traditional Economy: Substance Agriculture
Based on custom, habits and needs goal is to produce enough to feed themselves and their family
No surplus
Command Economy: Totalitarian
Based on government demand
Government sets the prices and how much is distributed
Market Economy
Free enterprise capitalism
Supply and demand
Business sets prices
Mixed Economy
Has element of a market economy
Government does regulate some aspects of the economy
Location
In latitude and longitude
In relation to another place
Place
Physical features
Human features
Interaction
People adapt to the environment
People change the environment
Movement
Travel from place to place
Exchange goods and ideas
Region
United by similar physical conditions
United by common cultural traits
Hominid
Group that includes human and their relatives that walk upright on 2 feet
Bipedalism
Form of terrestrial movement (walking, running) where an organism moves by means of its 2 rear limbs or legs
Paleolithic Era
(Old Stone Age) 2 million B.C to 10,000 B.C
Neolithic Era
(New Stone Age) 10,000 B.C to the end of prehistory
Nomads
People who moved from place to place to find food
Migration
Learned to travel across water to new places
Cultural Diffusion
Spreading of ideas, customs and technology from one person to another.
Animism
Belief that spirits exist in animals, objects or dreams
The Neolithic Revelation
Transition from nomadic life to settled life
Domesticated
Tame animals and adapt crops so they can beat serve humans
Technology
Tools created to meet the needs of people (metal tools and weapons introduced)
Civilization
Complex and organized social order. Were established from the rising number of cities growing from river valleys
Silt
Buts of rock and dirt from river bottoms which kept soil fertile
Surplus
Amount of something that is more than needed
Steppes
Non-fertile land or dry grassland