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Unit 5: States of Consciousness APP
Terms in this set (36)
= an awareness of ourselves and our environment.
= the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
= rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep state during which vivid dreams commonly
occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for
minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
= the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
= periodic, natural loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a
coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
= false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual
= the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
= non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
= recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
= a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
= a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
= a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
= a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
= according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
= according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).
= the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
= a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
= a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and
= a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
= a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.
= the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
= the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
= a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
= a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
= compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.
= drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
= drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
= opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
= drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
= drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
= a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
= a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
= psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
= a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).
= an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
= the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
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