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what performs most of the task the body needs to function?
(made from amino acid monomers, which then make polymers)
what does a DNA nucleotide consist of?
a sugar- deoxyribose
a phosohate group
a nitrogenous base- A, T, C, G
what is helicase
an enzyme that un zips the double helix of dna by breaking hydrogen bonds durign the steps of DNA replication
why would cause there to be a mutation in DNA
the occasional mistake in the replication of the dna
EX: the bases match up wrong
what does dna replication do
copys gentic material and enssurs it can be passed down from generation to generation
what is DNA polymerase andw hat does it do
its a enzyme that serves as a catalyst for repairing damaged DNA and it makes the covalent bond between the nucleotide and the new DNA strand
why is it so easy to make new DNA strands?
because the bases are bonded by a hydrogen bond snf hydrogen bonds are very weak
what is different from RNA compared to DNA
it is single stranded,
has 1 LESS oxygen and
has ribose sugar
has uracil instead of thymine
made in the nucleus and moved to the cytoplasm
the group of 3 nucleotide bases that codes for 1 amino acid
(the series of three based words written in DNA/RNA that holds the genetic intructions for the amino acid sequence)
a nucleotide polymer, can be very long and have any sequence of nucleotides
EX: a sugar phosphate backbone
building a protein from RNA
the translation from RNA to a protein
the translation of the nucleotide language to an amino acid language
a mutation which there is no change in the amino acide
EX: the codones change but they still code for the same amino acid
a nucleotide substitution where a nucleotide is replace with the wrong letter and it then codes for a different amino acid, which CAN change the ability of that amino acid to function
EX: sickle cell anemia
a nucleotide is deleted causing all teh codons from that point on misread which coudl result in the whole polypeptide being NONfunctional-depending on where the deletion is
a nucleotide is inserted which dissrupts the order of codons that followwhich coudl produce a NONfunctional polypeptide- DEPENDING on where the insertion is
physicall or chemical agents that are sources of mutations.
EX: X-rays & UV light- PHYSICAL
anti-aids drugs that stops the replication of DNA-CHEMICAL
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