what performs most of the task the body needs to function?
proteins, (made from amino acid monomers, which then make polymers)
some major types of protiens
structual storage contractile transport- enzymes-to break things down
is DNA a polymer?
what do viruses consist of?
a nucleic acid and a protein
what does a DNA nucleotide consist of?
a sugar- deoxyribose a phosohate group a nitrogenous base- A, T, C, G
another word for a nucleotide polymer
what are proteins consructed from
20 kinds of amino acids
what is RNA
a single stranded copy of DNA containing the nitrogenous base URACIL instead if THYMINE
what is helicase
an enzyme that un zips the double helix of dna by breaking hydrogen bonds durign the steps of DNA replication
what is polymerase
the enzyme that brings in the (free) complamentary nucleotide bases A T C G.
why would cause there to be a mutation in DNA
the occasional mistake in the replication of the dna EX: the bases match up wrong
what does DNA do in a cell
code for enzymes structural proteins codes for RNA
what does dna replication do
copys gentic material and enssurs it can be passed down from generation to generation
what is DNA polymerase andw hat does it do
its a enzyme that serves as a catalyst for repairing damaged DNA and it makes the covalent bond between the nucleotide and the new DNA strand
what are origins of replication
the specific sites on the double helix where DNA replication occurs
guanine and cytosin have how many rings in their structure
1 they are signle ring structures
adenine and thymine have how many rings in their structure
2 they are double ring structures
radiation or uv light can damage dna, what might help repair the damage?
How are new cells created?
how do our cells reapir a wound or cut?
by makign new cells through dna replication
why is it so easy to make new DNA strands?
because the bases are bonded by a hydrogen bond snf hydrogen bonds are very weak
what is different from RNA compared to DNA
it is single stranded, has 1 LESS oxygen and has ribose sugar has uracil instead of thymine made in the nucleus and moved to the cytoplasm
the set if rules that converts the sequece in RNA to to an amino acid sequence
stop and start codones
indictate where the genitic message should start and sthp
an organsims genetic make up heritable information ex: enzymes
an organisms physical traits EX: structural proteins
what does the function of a gene dictate
the production of a polypeptide
the group of 3 nucleotide bases that codes for 1 amino acid
(the series of three based words written in DNA/RNA that holds the genetic intructions for the amino acid sequence)
how many triplet codes are there for amino acids
long chains of chemical units AKA polymers made up of monomers
a nucleotide polymer, can be very long and have any sequence of nucleotides EX: a sugar phosphate backbone
the messenger that carries the instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
making the rna copy from the dna template re-writing the nucleotide language
building a protein from RNA the translation from RNA to a protein the translation of the nucleotide language to an amino acid language
(ribosomal) catalyze the joining of amino acids on the ribosome
EX of a good mutation
EX of bad mutation
sickle cell anemia
changes in the DNA sequence, that can stop the production of much needed proteins
types of mutations
nucleotide substitutions nucleotide insertions or deletions
a mutation which there is no change in the amino acide EX: the codones change but they still code for the same amino acid
the replacement of one nucleotide base with another
a nucleotide substitution where a nucleotide is replace with the wrong letter and it then codes for a different amino acid, which CAN change the ability of that amino acid to function EX: sickle cell anemia
a nucleotide is deleted causing all teh codons from that point on misread which coudl result in the whole polypeptide being NONfunctional-depending on where the deletion is
a nucleotide is inserted which dissrupts the order of codons that followwhich coudl produce a NONfunctional polypeptide- DEPENDING on where the insertion is
when the amino acid codon is chanegd into a STOP codon
physicall or chemical agents that are sources of mutations.
EX: X-rays & UV light- PHYSICAL anti-aids drugs that stops the replication of DNA-CHEMICAL
a specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide