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Where does RNA transcription occur

the nucleus of a cell

how many bonds does adedine have with thymine


how do the nitrogenous bases bond

a hydrogen bond

how many bonds does cytosine have with guanine


what does dna code for

the particular shape of each protein

what performs most of the task the body needs to function?

(made from amino acid monomers, which then make polymers)

some major types of protiens

enzymes-to break things down

is DNA a polymer?


what do viruses consist of?

a nucleic acid and a protein

what does a DNA nucleotide consist of?

a sugar- deoxyribose
a phosohate group
a nitrogenous base- A, T, C, G

another word for a nucleotide polymer


what are proteins consructed from

20 kinds of amino acids

what is RNA

a single stranded copy of DNA containing the nitrogenous base URACIL instead if THYMINE

what is helicase

an enzyme that un zips the double helix of dna by breaking hydrogen bonds durign the steps of DNA replication

what is polymerase

the enzyme that brings in the (free) complamentary nucleotide bases A T C G.

why would cause there to be a mutation in DNA

the occasional mistake in the replication of the dna
EX: the bases match up wrong

what does DNA do in a cell

code for enzymes
structural proteins
codes for RNA

what does dna replication do

copys gentic material and enssurs it can be passed down from generation to generation

what is DNA polymerase andw hat does it do

its a enzyme that serves as a catalyst for repairing damaged DNA and it makes the covalent bond between the nucleotide and the new DNA strand

what are origins of replication

the specific sites on the double helix where DNA replication occurs

guanine and cytosin have how many rings in their structure

1 they are signle ring structures

adenine and thymine have how many rings in their structure

2 they are double ring structures

radiation or uv light can damage dna, what might help repair the damage?

DNA polymerase

How are new cells created?

dna replication

how do our cells reapir a wound or cut?

by makign new cells through dna replication

why is it so easy to make new DNA strands?

because the bases are bonded by a hydrogen bond snf hydrogen bonds are very weak

what is different from RNA compared to DNA

it is single stranded,
has 1 LESS oxygen and
has ribose sugar
has uracil instead of thymine
made in the nucleus and moved to the cytoplasm

genetic code

the set if rules that converts the sequece in RNA to to an amino acid sequence

stop and start codones

indictate where the genitic message should start and sthp


an organsims genetic make up
heritable information
ex: enzymes


an organisms physical traits
EX: structural proteins

what does the function of a gene dictate

the production of a polypeptide


the group of 3 nucleotide bases that codes for 1 amino acid

(the series of three based words written in DNA/RNA that holds the genetic intructions for the amino acid sequence)

how many triplet codes are there for amino acids



long chains of chemical units
polymers made up of monomers


a nucleotide polymer, can be very long and have any sequence of nucleotides
EX: a sugar phosphate backbone


the messenger that carries the instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm


making the rna copy from the dna template
re-writing the nucleotide language


building a protein from RNA
the translation from RNA to a protein
the translation of the nucleotide language to an amino acid language


(ribosomal) catalyze the joining of amino acids on the ribosome

EX of a good mutation


EX of bad mutation

sickle cell anemia


changes in the DNA sequence, that can stop the production of much needed proteins

types of mutations

nucleotide substitutions
nucleotide insertions or deletions

silent mutation

a mutation which there is no change in the amino acide
EX: the codones change but they still code for the same amino acid

nucleotide substitutions

the replacement of one nucleotide base with another

missense mutation

a nucleotide substitution where a nucleotide is replace with the wrong letter and it then codes for a different amino acid, which CAN change the ability of that amino acid to function
EX: sickle cell anemia

nucleotide deletion

a nucleotide is deleted causing all teh codons from that point on misread which coudl result in the whole polypeptide being NONfunctional-depending on where the deletion is

nucleotide insertion

a nucleotide is inserted which dissrupts the order of codons that followwhich coudl produce a NONfunctional polypeptide- DEPENDING on where the insertion is

nonsense mutation

when the amino acid codon is chanegd into a STOP codon


physicall or chemical agents that are sources of mutations.

EX: X-rays & UV light- PHYSICAL
anti-aids drugs that stops the replication of DNA-CHEMICAL


a specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

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