AP Gov Chapter 3 Terms
Terms in this set (38)
Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as "reserved powers amendment" or "states' rights amendment"
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
money given by the national government to the states
Privileges and Immunities Clause
States are prohibited from unreasonably discriminating against residents of other states (article 4)
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
All powers not specifically delegated to the national government by the Constitution. The reserve power can be found in the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution.
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels.
surrender of prisoner by one state to another; Ex. extradition treaty; V. extradite
An agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements.
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds.
Layer Cake Federalism
federalism characterized by a national government exercising its power independently from state governments.
actions imposed by the federal or state government on lower levels of government which are not accompanied by the money needed to fund the action required.
Views the national government, 50 states, and thousands of local governments as competing with each other over ways to put together packages of services and taxes. Applies the analogy of the marketplace: we have some choice about which state and city we want to "use", just as we have choices about what kind of telephone service we use.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Marble Cake Federalism
Conceives of federalism as a marble cake in which all levels of government are involved in a variety of issues and programs, rather than a layer cake, or dual federalism, with fixed divisions between layers or levels of government.
A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Bill of Attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trial or a fair hearing in court
A form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Constitution's requirement that each state accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
A policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
those regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states with federal funds to support them
A doctrine under which certain federal laws preempt, or take precedence over, conflicting state or local laws.
Ex Post Facto Laws
A law which punishes people for a crime that was not a crime when it was committed. Congress cannot pass these laws.
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
when firms cut costs in a competitive pricing situation in such a way as to decrease the quality of goods and services