80 terms

Developmental Test 1

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Plato
This person thought children's experiences simply triggered knowledge they've had since birth.
Aristotle
This person thought children were born with no innate knowledge and learned through their own perceptions and experiences.
John Locke
Believed children were a blank slate or "tabula rasa" and claimed experiences molded an infant
Jean Rousseau
Believed newborns are endowed with a sense of justice and morality that unfolds as children grow
Stanley Hall
Generated theories of childhood development based on evolutionary theory
Freud
Experiences of early childhood accounted for behavior in adulthood. Things still believed today 1) early experiences affect future development 2) children often experience conflict between what they want to do and what they should do
John Watson
The founder of behaviorism
Applied Developmental Science
Uses developmental research to promote healthy development, particularly for vulnerable children and families
Biological Perspective
Perspective stating that intellectual and personality development as well as physical and motor development are rooted in _______
Maturational Theory
Child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body. Proposed by Gesell
Ethological Theory
Views development from an evolutionary period. Many behaviors are adaptive and have a survival value. Critical period. Lorenz
Critical Period
The time in development when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after this period, the same type of learning is either difficult or impossible
Konrad Lorenz
Used baby chicks imprinting period to illustrate the critical period
Psychodynamic Perspective
Oldest scientific perspective on child development. Originating in the work of Freud. Development is based off of how well people handle conflicts at certain ages
Id
A reservoir of primitive instincts and drives. Instant gratification, little control
Ego
The practical, rational component of personality. Controls the id
Superego
The moral agent in child's personality. Emerges during preschool years when children start to internalize right v wrong
Psychosocial Theory
Erikson. Development consists of a sequence of stages, each defined by a unique crisis or challenge
Basic trust v mistrust
Erikson stage 1. 0-1 year. To develop that the world is safe
Autonomy v shame and doubt
E stage 2. 1-3 years. To realize that one is an independent person who can make decisions
Initiative v guilt
E stage 3. 3-6 years. To develop willingness to try new things and handle failure
Industry v inferiority
E stage 4. 6-adolescence. To learn basic skills and to work with others
Identity v identity confusion
E stage 5. Adolescence. To develop a lasting, integrated sense of self
Intimacy v isolation
E stage 6. Young adulthood. To commit to another in a loving relationship
Generativity v stagnation
E stage 7. Middle adulthood. To contribute to younger people, through child rearing, child care, or other productive work
Integrity v despair
E stage 8. Late life. To view one's life as satisfactory and worth living
Learning Perspective
Perspective similar to Locke's tabula rasa. Watson first to apply. Development determined primarily by environment
Operant conditioning
The consequences of a behavior determine if the behavior is repeated. Reinforcement (do again) and punishment (stop doing). Skinner
Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura. Imitation and observation. Experience gives children a sense of self-efficacy
Cognitive Developmental Perspective
Focuses on how children think and on how their thinking changes as they grow. Piaget
Sensorimotor
P stage 1. 0-2 years. Infant's knowledge of the world is based on sense and motor skills.
Preoperational
P stage 2. 2-6 years. Child learns how to use symbols such as words and numbers to represent aspects of the world but only relates through their perspective
Concrete operational
P stage 3. 7-11 years. Child understands and applies logical operations to experiences
Formal operational
P stage 4. Adolescence and beyond. Think abstractly, speculate on hypothetical situations, and reason deductively.
Information Processing Theory
Cognitive development is continuous based on the increased capacity for working memory
Contextual Perspective
Development is influenced by immediate and more distant environments, which typically influence each other
Lev Vygotsky
Emphasizes the role of parents and other adults in conveying culture to the next generation
Active- Passive Child Issue
Are children simply at the mercy of their environment (passive) or do they influence their own development (active)
Systematic Observation
Involves watching children and carefully recording what they say and do. Naturalistic and structured
Task Performance
When a behavior cannot be directly observed one can create a task that sample the behavior of interest. Number strings for memory
Self Reports
Children's answers to questions about the topic of interest
Physiological Measures
Specialized measurement of a child's body. Heart rate monitor
Evaluating Measures
Reliable if the results are consistent over time. Valid if it really means what researchers think it measures
Experimental Study
Researcher independent, controls other variables
Correlational Study
Investigators looks at relationships between variables as they exist naturally int he world. Correlation does not mean causation
Longitudinal design
Same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives
Cross-Sectional Design
Developmental changes are identified by testing children of different ages at one point in their development
Sequential Design
Different sequences of children are tested longitudinally
23 chromosomes
Each sperm+egg carry ____
Genotype
Complete set of genes that makes up a person's heredity
Phenotype
Observation of one's genotype
Polygenic Inheritance
Many traits carried on several gene pairs
PKU
Recessive Transmission. --> Mental retardation
Klinefelters
XXY. Tall, small testes, sterile, below average intelligence
XYY Compliment
XYY. Tall, sometimes not smart
Turners
X. Short, limited development of secondary sex characteristics
XXX Syndrome
XXX. Normal stature but delayed motor and language development
Behavioral Genetics
Determining the impact of heredity on behavioral and psychological traits
Starr-McCartney Model
Child's phenotype is influenced by both their genotype and their environment
Ovulation
An egg cell from the ovary enters the fallopian tube at 9-16 days of the menstrual cycle
Period of the Zygote
Weeks 1-2. Ends when a fertilized egg called a zygote implants itself in the wall of the uterus
Blastocyst
After 4 days the zygote resembles a hollow ball and consists of about 100 cells
Period of the Embryo
Weeks 3-8. Body structures and organs begin to develop
Embryo
Once the blastocyst is embodied in the uterine wall
Period of the Fetus
Weeks 9-38. Baby to be becomes much larger and its bodily systems begin to work
Teratogens
Any agent that can have detrimental effects on prenatal development. Diseases, drugs, environmental hazards
Chronic Villus Sampling
A sample of the tissue is obtained from the chorion and analyzed. Tube through vagina
Ultrasound
Sound waves used to generate images of the fetus
Amniocentesis
Sample of fetal cells obtained from amniotic fluid. Needle to stomach
Stage 1
12-24 hours where the cervix enlarges to 10cm. By the end of this, the baby is crowning
Stage 2
1 hour. Baby moves down the birth canal and is born
Stage 3
10-15 minutes. Placenta is expelled after the baby is out
Fontanel
Soft spot on a baby's head. The skull has not yet completely fused together
Anoxia
Lack of oxygen for the baby, related to the umbilical chord
Placental Abruption
The placenta detaches from the wall of the uterus prematurely. Results in the death of the fetus and is harmful to the mother. Brought on by cocaine use or smoking
Premature birth
Born before 35 weeks
Low birth weight
Birth weight that is lower than what should be expected at the time of birth. Tends to be problematic
Infant mortality
Given live births, the number of deaths that occur in the first year, per 1000 births
SIDS
Seemingly very healthy infants die for no apparent reasons between 2-4 months
Apgar Score
Quick, systematic assessment that's done on the newborn to measure if the newborn is under distress. Measures: Activity, Pulse, Grimace, Appearance, Respiration on a 0-2 scale