9th Biology Test-- DNA
Biology Test Set, covering DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis, etc
Terms in this set (26)
deoxyribose nucleic acid
ribose nucleic acid
instructions for proteins, "blueprint"
production of proteins, "construction workers"
Every cell in your body has..
46 strands of DNA
23 chromosomes from mom
23 from dad
process by which proteins are made
DNA is transcribed into mRNA is translated into a polypeptide
a segment of DNA is transcribed into mRNA, takes place in the nucleus
mRNA is translated into a polypeptide
RNA Nitrogen Bases
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil
DNA Nitrogen Bases
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
what happens in transcription
hydrogen bonds between DNA strands are broken, seperating the sides of DNA. Messenger RNA attaches to DNA nitrogen bases creating a strand of mRNA.
non-reading segments of nitrogen bases, interfere with instructions
expressed segments, spliced together to form instructions
transfer RNA, transfers amino acids to the ribosome
messenger RNA, read or transcribes DNA
ribosomal RNA, builds ribosomes
a segment of DNA that has protein instruction
Parts of a Nucleotide
deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogen base
Parts of the Backbone
A and T
G and C
nucleotides line up across from existing strands according to base pairing rules. enzymes link the nucleotides together to form two new strands.
Differences between RNA and DNA
RNA= ribose, uracil, single helix
DNA=deoxyribose, thymine, double helix
Introns are..... and Extrons are.....
removed and joined together. Producing an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence.
Explain why a base substitution is often less harmful than a base deletion or insertion
Because mRNA is read as a series of triplets adding or subtracting nucleotides may alter groupings in the genetic message. All the nucleotides downstream will be regrouped into new codons which make new amino acids and a new protein.
Describe how a mutation could be helpful rather than harmful
they can alter a protein that could be beneficial to a organism that lives in a certain environment
any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation
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