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Terms in this set (40)
Structured English Immersion
Self-contained grade-level classrooms for ELL's with teachers who are trained and certified to provide language and content instruction for ELL students.
English Language Learner
A person whose first language is something other than English and who is in the process of attaining proficiency in English.
Limited English Proficient
Individuals who are unable to communicate in English because they have not learned the language and have not developed fluency.
Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Students
A term used in special education for ELLs with Special Need
Arizona English Language Learner Assessment
A standard based assessment that meets both state and federal requirements to measure students English language proficiency.
Primary Home Language Other Than English.
A student is identified as a PHLOTE upon enrollment into a district if a language other than English is identifies on the Home Language Survey. A PHLOTE is not necessarily an ELL.
Dual Label student
A student who is ELL and with a disability. Labeled ELL and SPED.
Individual Language Learner Plan
Schools with 20 or fewer ELL's within a three grade span may provide instruction through the development of ILLPs created for each ELL.
Written Individualized Compensatory Plan
Individual plan that describes the compensatory instruction provided will be maintained in the students' ELL files. Instruction is focused on the skill or knowledge deficits revealed by the reassessment results.
Occurs when a new language replaces a student's home language.
Occurs when a student develops proficiency in a new language without losing his or her home language
Native Language Instruction
L1 refers to native language or first language
L2 is the second language
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
BICS is social competency, which means one's ability to get along in social context. This takes 1-3 years to develop.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency.
Student's ability to understand and express in both oral and written modes, concepts and ideas that are relevant to success in school. -Cummins
Language Acquisition Device
Noam Chomsky one of the world's greatest linguists. LAD allows children to figure out the underlying rules of language on their own, because of their exposure to samples of natural language.
Acquisition v. learning Hypothesis
Language Acquisition is a subconscious process. With this learning, we are not sure of what our brains are processing. Language Learning however is a conscious process; It is what we do in school.
Natural order hypothesis
We acquire language in a predictable order. Sometimes appears "immune to teaching."
Even though most language is acquired, we use learned language to monitor or inspect what we acquire and then mentally correct errors. We sometimes correct the errors in our head before they are written or spoken. "Little language teacher in our heads."
Affective filter hypothesis
Controls how much comprehensible input gets through to the learner. "Lower the affective filter to maximize comprehensible input." The affective filter is a barrier due to stress, discomfort, and fear. It must be lowered for any language learning, or any language to occur.
Comprehensible input hypothesis
Essential ingredient for Second Language Acquisition. When the Affective filter is low, comprehended input is presented.
Phonology is the study of sounds of a language that is heard when one speaks.
Smallest units of sound in a language. Change in the sounds of phonemes causes a change in meaning.
Morphology is the study of how the individual words are arranged
Smallest units that carry meaning or have a grammatical function. EX. Birds: Bird-mammal that flies s-plural meaning more than one.
Syntax refers to the study of rules that depict the way words are put together to create sentences.
Semantics is the study of the definitions and meanings of words, phrases, and sentences.
Lexicon of a language is the vocabulary.
When one is talking about pragmatics, they mean the recognition of what is being said when it's not actually spoken; the "invisible meaning."
English as a Second Language
Instruction that focuses on helping ELL's to attain proficiency in English.
English Language Development
An Alternative label for an ESL programs and instruction, commonly used at the elementary schools.
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English.
Another term for sheltered instruction, preferred in California and other states because it places emphasis on the fact that such instruction is academically rigorous and specially designed to match the linguistic needs of the students.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
A tool for planning, implementing, and evaluating sheltered English content-area instruction.
Transitional Bilingual Education
Also known as early exit programs. They target ELL's who speak the same L1 and they are usually found in the primary grades of elementary school. The goal is to transition ELL's to mainstream English classrooms.
Developmental Bilingual Education
Sometimes called Maintenance or late-exit bilingual education. They lack federal support therefore TBE's are more common.
Dual Language program
Sometimes referred to as two way immersion or dual immersion. They are designed for even numbers of English speakers and ELL's from the same language background.
Heritage Language Program
Refers to a wide range of programs such as in school and after school or weekend programs in which language minority students have the opportunity to learn their native or heritage language.
Recognize that newly arrived ELL's with little to no proficiency in English will have very difficult times learning in a classroom with English instruction. These programs are great for students when bilingual education is not an option.
Placing an ELL student in a mainstream classroom where there is no ESL instruction, no sheltered instruction, and no primary language support.
Total Physical Response
A language teaching approach in which students physically respond to language input to internalize the meaning and to demonstrate their comprehension of the language.
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