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TOPIC 6C - USES OF ICT IN HEALTHCARE
Terms in this set (30)
what are Sensors
Sensors are devices that can be used to detect physical, chemical and biological signals.
Used in ITU units to measure temperature, blood pressure, central venous pressure etc.
what are the two types of sensors?
what additional data is measured by sensors?
Central venous pressure
Advantages and disadvantages of using sensors for patient monitoring
- Allows 24/7 monitoring
- Frees up staff
- Accurate reading or recording
- Spotting trends in patient symptoms
- Allows remote monitoring of patients
- Calibration needed to check accuracy
what are Scanning Devices
Scanning devices are used to build up a model of the internal structures of a patient which aids diagnosis and ensures the patient gets the correct treatment.
what are the two types of scanning devices
what is Magnetic Resonance Image - MRI
Provide a tremendous level of detail on tissue information - very good for detecting brain tumours.
what are the 3 features of MRI?
- Uses magnetic and radio waves instead of x - rays (does not harm)
- It is used to produce clear pictures to check for tumours.
- Can also be used for
Examining the heart
Examining joints and spine
Checking organ function
what is Computerised Axial Tomography - CAT
Produces a complete 3D model of a patients bones and internal organs
what are the 4 feature of CAT
- A special and more complicated type of x-ray machine
- More detailed than ordinary x-rays
- Mainly used for pinpointing tumours
- They use more x-rays than normal so shouldn't be performed unless essential.
Advantages & Disadvantages of scanning devices
1. Allows (accurate) diagnosis without the need for surgery
2. Leads to faster recovery
3. Removes danger of post-operative infections
4. Surgeons are better prepared as they know what whey will find before cutting the body open
1. Expensive to purchase or to run
2. Can be claustrophobic
3. Could result in the loss of traditional diagnostic skills
4. Have to keep still for long periods in MRI
5. Health risks - increased risk of cancer
what are some New and future developments
Modern medicine has started to focus more on patient care outside of hospitals.
More tasks can be performed in people's homes rather than at the doctor's surgery
Sensors used to administer drugs automatically when patients need it (for example - diabetic patients with glucose.)
In the past, all patient records were kept on paper and this caused many problems.
There are many advantages of storing data electronically rather than on paper.
what are some New and Future Developments of medical databases
The NHS National Database
The Electronic Prescription Service
Blood Barcoding & Tracking Systems
- Blood barcoding allows the tracking of blood from its donation to its use.
- A bracelet with a barcode worn by patients is matched with barcode on the blood bag.
How blood tracking works
Advantages & Disadvantages of the blood tracking system
1. Can track a patient / donor if given bad blood (cross contamination)
2. Better stock control of blood
3. Makes sure patient gets the right type
4. Provides security be only allowing certain staff to access blood in the fridge.
1. Damaged barcodes can cause delay
Use of the Internet, Intranet & Extranet
Internet technology allows healthcare trusts to reduce their networking costs and allow access to their ICT systems from anywhere at any time subject to the correct authorisation.
Healthcare trusts make use of the
- Distributed Medical Database
what is the Intranet
A private internal network which allows employees of an organisation to access information resources within the organisation.
what is the Extranet
Extranets are intranets opened to selected groups of users outside the company such as customers, suppliers, etc.
what are Distributed Medical Database
Where the data is stored on a number of servers rather than just one. These servers are often in different locations. The user will not know data is being obtained from different servers.
what are the uses of intranet
-Send messages through the network
- Transfer patients data to different devices around the hospital (e.g. PCs, laptops, PDAs.)
what are the uses of extranet
- Suppliers - so that they are able to check that vital drugs and equipment never runs out
- Other agencies (e.g. Social workers, car homes, etc.) who work with patients but outside the hospital
- General practitioners - who can check the condition of their patients in hospital.
what are the uses of the internet?
- Send e - mails to patients they find difficult to contact by phone
- Communicate with patients using a hospital website
- Allow staff to perform research
- Enables patients to communicate with their friends and family
- Sends information on lab tests or X-rays requested by doctors
what are Expert Systems
An expert system is a computer system which emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.
Software which diagnosis problems and gives advice on what the causes of those problems are.
what are the 3 main components of an expert system
what is knowledge base
A collection of rules or other information structures derived from the human expert
what is inference engine
The main processing element of the expert system/applying rules to the system or situation
what is the user interface
Is the main method by which the expert system interacts with a user
what are some Advantages & Disadvantages of an expert system
1. The expert system is always available 24 hours a day
2. Will never 'retire' - no loss of expertise
3. Some people prefer the privacy of 'talking' to a computer rather than talking to a GP
4. Can provide a second opinion
1. Over-reliance on IT systems / Loss of doctor expertise
2. Cost to buy and set up the system
3. People can convince themselves that they are worse than they actually are from misusing the online version
4. Expert systems have no "common sense".
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