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unicellular amoebozoans in soil and aquatic habitats. Most are heterotrophic and actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists


unicellular parasites eg. Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentry


diverse and widespread and are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients

Honey Mushroom

(Armillaria ostoyae), a fungus that covers over 2,500 acres and is growing through the earth and roots of trees on the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon
Age estimated to be 1,900 years, weight could be hundreds of tons

Fungi as heterotrophs

they dont ingest their food but secrete exoenzymes that break down complex molecules, and then they absorb the smaller compounds. this is why these organisms are ecologically successful.


type of fungi, aka saprobes.. they're everywhere, but common on forest floor.


about thirty percent of fungi.. absorb nutrients from living host and are responsible for about 80 percent of plant disease

mutualistic symbionts

these are the root tip fungi and plants that help in nutrient scavenging and recieve carbon from the plant

three diverse lifestyles of fungi

decomposers, parasites, mutualistic symbionts

two most common body structures of fungi

multicellular filaments and single cells(yeast)


tiny filaments used for absorption


networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption


cell walls of fungi are made of this

morphology of multicellular fungi

enhances ability to absorb nutrients.

septate hyphae

hyphae divided into cells by septa with pores allowing cell to cell movement

coenocytic fungi

lack septa


mutualy beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots.. since fungi are more efficient at absorbing minerals, they help plants get established through roots. Fungi increases uptake and rates of mineral absorption and the plant provides fungus with food in the form of sugar.


ektos-out.. form sheaths of hyphar over a root and grow into extracellular spaces of root cortex.. this results in plant roots that are thicker, more branched and lack hairs. 10% of plant species have this and theyre usually woody.


endos- in.. extend hyphae through cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane. theyre also called arbusular mycorrhizae.. its found in 85% of plant species including crops

reproduction of fung

spores are produced sexually or asexually


the union of two parent mycelia.. hyphae were attracted to each other by the releasing of signaling molecules called pheromones. they meet and fuse.


signaling molecules that attract hyphae together


means different nuclei.. this occurs in many fungi where the haploid nuclei from each parent don't fuse right away but coexist in the mycelium


means two nuclei.. occurs sometimes when the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell


nuclear fusion, where the haploid nuclei fuse to produce diploid cells. the diploid phase is shortlived, undergoes meiosis and produces haploid spores.

asexual reproduction of fungi

usually grow as mold on bread, fruit and other food


clusters of bead like structures in the SEM that are conidospores at the end of aerial hyphae

yeast reproduction

asexual, by simple cell division or budding

yeast as model organisms

budding yeast and fission yeast..rapid doubling(every 2 hours), genes can be knocked out easily, first eukaryotic genome sequence, performs many of the same physiological processes as animals

fungi imperfecti

some don't have a known sexual stage, some are classified based on fruiting bodies or spores.. also called deuteromycetes


imperfect fungi.. includes penicillium (17000)

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