unicellular amoebozoans in soil and aquatic habitats. Most are heterotrophic and actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists
diverse and widespread and are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients
(Armillaria ostoyae), a fungus that covers over 2,500 acres and is growing through the earth and roots of trees on the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon
Age estimated to be 1,900 years, weight could be hundreds of tons
Fungi as heterotrophs
they dont ingest their food but secrete exoenzymes that break down complex molecules, and then they absorb the smaller compounds. this is why these organisms are ecologically successful.
about thirty percent of fungi.. absorb nutrients from living host and are responsible for about 80 percent of plant disease
these are the root tip fungi and plants that help in nutrient scavenging and recieve carbon from the plant
mutualy beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots.. since fungi are more efficient at absorbing minerals, they help plants get established through roots. Fungi increases uptake and rates of mineral absorption and the plant provides fungus with food in the form of sugar.
ektos-out.. form sheaths of hyphar over a root and grow into extracellular spaces of root cortex.. this results in plant roots that are thicker, more branched and lack hairs. 10% of plant species have this and theyre usually woody.
endos- in.. extend hyphae through cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane. theyre also called arbusular mycorrhizae.. its found in 85% of plant species including crops
the union of two parent mycelia.. hyphae were attracted to each other by the releasing of signaling molecules called pheromones. they meet and fuse.
means different nuclei.. this occurs in many fungi where the haploid nuclei from each parent don't fuse right away but coexist in the mycelium
nuclear fusion, where the haploid nuclei fuse to produce diploid cells. the diploid phase is shortlived, undergoes meiosis and produces haploid spores.
clusters of bead like structures in the SEM that are conidospores at the end of aerial hyphae
yeast as model organisms
budding yeast and fission yeast..rapid doubling(every 2 hours), genes can be knocked out easily, first eukaryotic genome sequence, performs many of the same physiological processes as animals
some don't have a known sexual stage, some are classified based on fruiting bodies or spores.. also called deuteromycetes