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Development is affected by:

Differences in the way males and females are socialized

Females are ______ to fear that outward expressions of anger will hurt their relationships


Asserts that our culture polarizes males and females, forcing them into exclusive gender roles.

The Gender Schema Theory

Ratio of male to female arrest for murder


Haynie and Piquero found that boys and girls who reached puberty at an early age increase chances of


W.I Thomas suggested that some girls who have not been socialized under middle-class family controls can:

Become impulsive thrill seekers

In Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Crime, James Messerchmidt argues that capitalist society is marked by:

patriarchy and class conflict

All forms of transportation of women and girls through the use of force, abduction, fraud, and coercion for the purpose of sexual or commercial exploitation

Human trafficking

Gender differences in the delinquency rate are a function of class differences and economic conditions that influence structure of family life

Power Control Theory

Cognitive differences between males and females start in:


Rita Simon's view has been supported by research showing a correlation between:

women's rights movement and female crime rate

Gender inequality stems from the unequal power of men and women and the subsequent exploitation of women by men

Critical feminists

Males involved in justice system are sanctioned _____ than females

more severely

Males do better at tasks that require:

visual image manipulation

Females do better at tasks that require:

retrieval from long-term memory

Suggests that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men

Masculinity hypothesis

Gender differences in personality, cognition, intelligence, etc. are smaller than once believed

Gender Similarities Hypothesis

View that low female crime rates are a reflection of the leniency with which police treat female offenders.

Chivalry (paternalism) hypothesis

Females are less delinquent than males because their social roles provide them with fewer opportunities to commit crimes; as the roles of women become similar to those of men, so too will crime patterns

Liberal feminism

Unmarried couples with children

Fragile familes

Nuclear families that are the product of divorce and remarriage, blending one parent from each of two families and their combined children into one family unit.

Blended families

Families in which parents integrate their children into the household unit while helping them assert their individuality and regulate their own behavior.

Paternal Efficacy

Environment of conflict within family; children who grow up in dysfunctional homes often exhibit delinquent behaviors, having learned at a young age that aggression pays off.

Intrafamily Violence

Condition that occurs when parents have such large families that their resources, such as time and money, are spread too thin, causing lack of familial support.

Resource dilution

Factors that play a role in intergenerational transmission of deviance:

1. Inheritance/genetic factors
2. Exposure to violence
3 Substance abuse
4. Parenting ability
5. Stigma

Nonaccidental physical injury of children by their parents or guardians

Battered child syndrome

Any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child.

Child abuse

Deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents


Parents physically leave their children with the intention of completely severing their relationship


Mass murders in which a spouse and one or more children are slain.


Preliminary protective or temporary custody hearing in which the court will review the facts and determine whether removal of the child is justified

Advisement hearing

Attorney for the social services agency presents an overview of the case, and a plea bargain can be agreed to in a consent decree

Pretrial conference

Social service agency presents its case plan and recommendations for care of the child and treatment of the parents

Disposition hearing

Efforts of the courts to balance the parents' natural right to raise a child with the child's right to grow up into adulthood free from physical or emotional abuse

Balancing of the interests approach

Periodic meetings to determine whether the conditions of the case plan for an abused child are being met by the parents of the child

Review hearings

Out of court statements made by one person and recounted in court by another


Aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensely disliked by their peers and who are the ones most likely to become engaged in antisocial behavior

Controversial status youth

Process in which close friends reinforce deviant behavior choices through talk and interacton

Deviancy training

Delinquent group that fills a crack in the social fabric and maintains standard group practices

Interstitial group

Inner-city areas of extreme poverty where the critical social control mechanisms have broken down

Disorganized neighborhood

Social workers who go out into the community and establish close relationships with juvenile gangs with the goal of modifying gang behavior to conform to conventional behaviors and help gang members get jobs and educational opportunities

Detached street workers

Parents of delinquent youths tend to be:

inconsistent disciplinarians, either overly harsh or extremely lenient.

Oldest federal agency for children, it is responsible for assisting states in the delivery of child welfare services, designed to protect children and strengthen families.

Children's Bureau

Case reported to child protection service. 50% of reported cases deemed "unfounded."


Court decides whether allegations of abuse are supported by evidence, adversarial process. No more than 10% of cases reach this stage.


Being the target of abuse is associated with subsequent episodes of:

delinquency and violence (70-80% of offenders have history of abuse)

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