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41 terms

anatomy chapter 4&5

STUDY
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The body's first response to injury is
inflammation
Mast cells, in the process of stimulating an inflammatory response, secrete all EXCEPT which of the following?
Interleukin-1
Cell divisions within the stratum __________ replace more superficial cells which eventually die and fall off.
germinativum
The epidermal layer that consists almost entirely of keratin is the __________.
stratum corneum
Cerumen is produced by glands located in the __________.
ear canal
The layer primarily responsible for the strength of the skin is the __________ layer.
reticular
Which of these cells produce the fibers found within the reticular layer of the dermis?
fibroblasts
Which gland secretes oil into the hair follicle?
sebaceous
The process of skin repair after injury begins with ___________.
formation of a blood clot
what is apart of the cutaneous membrane?
reticular layer ,epidermis, papillary layer
The papillary layer is more superficial than the reticular layer of dermis. True or false?
true
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is
vitamin D.
The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
keratinocytes.
When the arrector pili muscles contract,
"goose bumps" are formed.
The dermis is composed of the papillary layer and the ___________.
reticular layer
The two components of the integumentary system are the
cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.
Dendritic cells
The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the
stratum germinativum.
The epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?
5
what stores melanin in melanosomes?
Melanocytes
Skin exposed to ultraviolet light increases production of __________.
melanin
The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are
carotene and melanin.
The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.
melanin
what is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?
vitiligo
what does the epidermis receives blood from?
dermal arteries called the papillary plexus
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.
papillary
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.
reticular
Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed
dermatitis
The layer of soft keratin within the hair shaft is the ___________.
medulla
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
cuticle.
Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by
melanocytes
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.
sebaceous
The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.
apocrine sweat
Fingernails grow from which structure?
nail root
Collagen to repair a deep skin wound is produced by __________.
dermal fibroblasts
Mast cells are triggering a response to injury during which phase of repair?
inflammatory
In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.
fibroblasts
If a fair-skinned person is sunburned, why does his or her skin turn red?
The blood flow to the skin increases.
Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury.
Scar tissue is the result of
large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area.