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molecules that make the membrane fluid

enzymes, receptors, transporters

3 roles of membrane proteins


role of carbohydrates attached to some proteins

cholesterol; keep membrane fluid

molecules that are buried in the membrane; only found in animal cell membranes

holds cell's contents together, identifies the cell, controls what enters/leaves the cell

3 roles of the plasma membrane

passive transport

movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell

concentration gradient

difference in the concentration of a substance across a space


a condition in which the concentration of a substance is equal throughout the space


the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration caused by the random motion of particles of the substance


the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

hypertonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to shrink due to osmosis

hypotonic solution

a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis

isotonic solution

a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis

ion channel

a transport protein with a polar pore through which ions can pass

sodium-potassium pump

a protein that actively transports sodium ions and potassium ions against their concentration gradient

active transport

the transport of a substance across the cell membrane against its concentration gradient


the movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle


the movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell

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