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18 terms

Biology Chapter 4

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phospholipids
molecules that make the membrane fluid
enzymes, receptors, transporters
3 roles of membrane proteins
markers
role of carbohydrates attached to some proteins
cholesterol; keep membrane fluid
molecules that are buried in the membrane; only found in animal cell membranes
holds cell's contents together, identifies the cell, controls what enters/leaves the cell
3 roles of the plasma membrane
passive transport
movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell
concentration gradient
difference in the concentration of a substance across a space
equilibrium
a condition in which the concentration of a substance is equal throughout the space
diffusion
the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration caused by the random motion of particles of the substance
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
hypertonic solution
a solution that causes a cell to shrink due to osmosis
hypotonic solution
a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis
isotonic solution
a solution that produces no change in cell volume because of osmosis
ion channel
a transport protein with a polar pore through which ions can pass
sodium-potassium pump
a protein that actively transports sodium ions and potassium ions against their concentration gradient
active transport
the transport of a substance across the cell membrane against its concentration gradient
endocytosis
the movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle
exocytosis
the movement of a substance by a vesicle to the outside of a cell