75 terms

Iraq/Islam

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Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
Mecca
A city of western Saudi Arabia near the coast of the Red Sea. The birthplace of Muhammad, it is the holiest city of Islam and a pilgrimage site for all devout believers of the faith.
Mohammed
570-632. Born in Mecca, died in Medina. Founder of Islam. Regarded by Muslims as a prophet of God. Teachings make up the Qu'ran, the Muslim holy book.
Allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
Kaaba
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Khadija
Muhammad's wife; a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business. First to convert to Islam.
Muslims
those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. Mohammed converted the city to Islam, after created peace there. He did not force anyone to convert.
Hjira
It is an Arab word meaning "the departure." This is the journey when Mohammed took his followers to Medina to excape persecution.
Five Pillars of Islam
faith, believe in no god but allah, prayer, pray five times a day, alms, give to the poor, fasting, fast during the month of Ramadam, Pilgramage, go to Mecca at least once in your life
Mosque
an Islamic house of worship
Muezzini
The caller who tells the Islamic people when to pray
Ramadan
(Islam) a fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of Ramadan
Koran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
Caliph
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad. They thought only Mohammed's family could become the next Caliphs.
Ali
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shi'as
Husain
He was the son of Ali. He rejected the new caliph because not blood related to Mohammed.. He stood up the caliph's army with 72 family members and was decapitated by the Sonni caliphs. Where his body is burried is a important symbal to the Shi'a..
Imam
(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque
Twelvers
Shi'ite sect that believes there are 12 divine Imams, and that the final one, the Mahdi, will come back
Ashura
the 10th day of the Islamic month of Muharram and the time of mourning among Shi'as for the death of Husain at Karbala
Twelfth Imam
"Messiah" of Shiite Islam also called the Mahdi.
Safavid Dynasty
began in the early 16th and began to decline in the 18th century
Ottoman Empire
Centered in Constantinople, the Muslim imperial state that began in 1400's, conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
1920 Revolt
In the Cities of Najaf and Karbala the uprising was serious and bloody. It would take thousands of British forces four months to quell the violence. First time Sunnis and Shias, were brought together in a common fight. Led to British giving independence because of lack of support from British people.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
France and Britain carved up most of the Ottoman territory into spheres of influence, with Britain retaining direct control over mostr of modern Iraq and having inderect control over the rest of the area, with the exception of Mosul, under French Control.
Paris Peace Accord
was in 1919, settled control of the Middle East largely along the lines outlined in the Sykes-Picot deal, but also ecouraged the occupuing nations to develop locally autonomous governments in the areas they controlled.
Iraq Independence
After the failure of approval from the Iraqis of Faisal, the Iraqis demanded an independent government, so the British went to the League of Nations to settle the matter. In 1925, They decided Kurdistan is in the boundaries of Iraq, but they should be given many freedoms. With the boundaries of Iraq secure, and the Faisal government in charge, in 1932, the British agreed to grant Iraq full independence in 1932. Iraq joined the league of Nations, but game most of their oil fields to the British, French and Americans.
King Faisal
Installed as king of Iraq in 1922 by British. Brother of Abdullah king of Jordan. Monarchy ended with a military coup in 1958.
Does Islam support terrorism?
NEED MORE
In what parts of the world do Muslims form a majority.
Most Islamic Countries are in the Middle east and Indonesia, but Islam has spread across the world.
What problems did Britain face during its occupation of Iraq?
The 1920 Revolt, where 500 British Troops were killed. After World War 1 Britain did not want more fighting, so forced Britain out of controlling Iraq.
Seveners
Shia sect that believes there are 7 Imams
Pan-Arabism
a nationalist movement built for the power and shared heritage of Arabs who lived in the lands of the Arabian peninsula
1958 Coup
NEED MORE
Qasim
Lead a group of military officers and created new government, concentrated power, and withdrew from Middle East Treaty Organization gained power over Faisal the 2nd in 1958 Coup
Ba'ath Party
The Arab socialist party, founded by Michael Aflaq. Gained power over Iraq with help of Hussein and CIA. WHEN
1959 Assassination Attempt
Attempted assasination on Qasim, supported by CIA, Suddam took part
1963 Revolution
a series of revolutions led by the Ba'ath Party finnally giving them the dictatorship of Iraq and they gave al Bakr, their leader, the power over Iraq. In this revolution they defeated Qasim's party
Al Bakr
1914-82, president of Iraq (1968-79). He served as an officer in the Iraqi army but was forced to retire (1958) because of his participation in revolutionary activities. A member of the Ba'ath party, an ultranationalist left-wing group, he became prime minister after the Ba'athists seized power in 1963. He left the government later in that same year when conservative military leaders forced the Ba'athists from power. Bakr became president in 1968 after leading another Ba'athist coup, and was replaced by Saddam Hussein in 1979.
Free Officers
Movement in Egypt, led by Nasser, that overthrew the monarchy and British advisors, A faction of the Free Officers led a revolution in Iraq in 1958 in which King Faisal (cousin of King Hussein of Jordan) was brutally murdered. This coup was due to Nasser's anger over the formation of the Arab Federation between Iraq and Jordan a few months earlier.
Handover of Power
Saddam Hussein gradually increased his power in the Ba'ath Party and when Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr retired in July 1979, he became the new president. In the next few months Saddam Hussein swiftly executed his political rivals. Increasing oil revenues allowed him to increase spending on the building of schools, hospitals and clinics. He also established a literacy project that won him a Unesco award.
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
Tikrit
town in Iraq many thought Sadaam would return there during war as his last stronghold
Shah of Iran
Great friend of the US for two and a half decades but Iranians want to nationalize their oil and improve economy, sparks Iranian Revolution and Shah is overthrown (1979)
Ayatollah Khomeini
Shiite religious leader of Iran, led the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and ordered the invasion of the US Embassy
July 22 meeting
First meeting with Suddam as leader of Iraq, Saddam ordered the killing of all government officers who were suspected to have committed treason
Iran-Iraq War
In 1980 Saddam Hussein launched a war against Iran in an attempt to gain control of the Shatt al Arab Waterway, that runs along the border of both countries. During the war Iraq received support from the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France. Iran gradually gained the upper-hand and recovered all its conquered territory and moved into Iraq. Iraq agreed to a cease-fire in July 1988.
US-Iran arms deal
was a political scandal in the United States which came to light in November 1986, during the Reagan administration, in which senior US figures agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo, to secure the release of hostages and to fund Nicaraguan contras.
Gassing of Kurds
occurred in the period of March 16-17, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran-Iraq War, when chemical weapons were used by the Iraqi government forces in the Kurdish town of Halabja in Iraqi Kurdistan. The attack instantly killed thousands of people. Hussein did this because of his
Invasion of Kuwait
major conflict between the Republic of Iraq and the State of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month long Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, which subsequently led to direct military intervention by United States-led forces in the Persian Gulf War. In 1990 Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraq's oil through slant drilling, but some Iraqi sources indicate Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made only a few months before the actual invasion
First Gulf War
In 1991 was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of approximately 30 nations led by the United States and mandated by the United Nations in order to liberate Kuwait.
Shi'a Rebellion
The revolts in the Shia-dominated southern Iraq involved demoralized Iraqi Army troops and the anti-government Shia parties. They felt Hussein was weak after the loss of kuwait. Saddam managed to suppress the rebellions with massive and indiscriminate force and maintained power.
Kurdish Rebellion
From Kurdistan to southern Iraq the poor rose up against the Baathist/Fascist regime and against the consequences of the war created by both this regime and the coalition allies.
Kirkuk
An oil rich city which was captured by Kurds during their rebellions
No Fly Zones
areas over which Iraqi aircraft were not allowed to fly, were created in Kurdistan and in Kuwait
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm was the code name given to the first U.S.-led war against Iraq in the Persian Gulf on January 17, 1991.
UNSCOM
The United Nations Special Commission on Inspections, created at the end of the Persian Gulf War, to identify and destroy Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.
IAEA
the United Nations agency concerned with atomic energy
Oil for food
established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986)[1] and terminated in late 2003, was established with the stated intent to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to rebuild its military.
How did the Cold War shape US policy toward Iraq from 1945 through the 1960's.
The US was forced to support Iraq by giving them weapons and protection.
What means did Saddam Hussein use to rise to power.
He rose to power by punishing enemies, by creating Social welfare programs for population, by having a ruthless reputation, and by having connections with important people
What were Saddam's priorities while in power?
Modernizing economy, by creating Social welfare programs, and to give power to the Middle East.
Why did Saddam Hussein attack Iran in 1980?
Oil resources, Threat of Shia revolt, Alliance with Kurds.
What were the strengths and weaknesses of Iran and Iraq during the war?
Iraq had weapons and Financial support, Iran had manpower.
What role did the U.S. play during the Iran-Iraq war?
Pro-Iraq - Shared military intelligence with Iraq, Allowed Iraq to buy weapons on credit, Military escorts for Kuwaiti ships. Pro-Iran - Sold weapons against international embargo.
Why play a role?
The US helped Iran because they opposed Islamist government and Attacks threaten oil supply. US helped Iran for influence to release hostages in Lebanon.
What justifications did Saddam Hussein provide for invading Kuwait?
Pumping oil belonging to Iraq, Kuwait holding down oil prices, hindering Iraq's recovery, 14 billion debt owed to Kuwait, but should be waived, Coastline to make up for destroyed ports, Claimed popular uprising in Kuwait, and Kuwait was historically part of Iraq.
What happened to the Kurds and Shia's after the First Gulf War?
They were punished for their uprising and the Kurds were gassed by Saddam and many were imprisoned and killed by Sunni's.
Why did the U.S. not invade Iraq in 1991 and not topple Saddam?
No UN permission, Coalition support, Destabilizing region, Probelms of occupation, Possibility of chemical weapons, Retaliation against Isreal.